Question 24.3

Name the organisms that makeup the ESCAPPM group of organisms.

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College Answer

Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter freundii, Acinetobacter spp., Proteus vulgaris, Providencia spp. and Morganella morganii.


The ESCAPPM organisms are:

  • Enterobacter
  • Serratia
  • Citrobacrter
  • Acinetobacter (and Aeromonas)
  • Proteus
  • Providencia
  • Morganella

These are Gram-negative organisms with induceable chromosomal AmpC cephalosporinase/β-lactamase enzymes. Resistance to β-lactams and cephalosprins develops quickly in these species.

ESCAPPM and HACEK bacteria are discussed elsewhere in the Required Reading section.


BOYLE, ROBERT J., et al. "Clinical implications of inducible beta-lactamase activity in Gram-negative bacteremia in children." The Pediatric infectious disease journal 21.10 (2002): 935-939.


Sfakinos, John. "Detecting the dual presence of AmpC and ESBL enzymes."Microbiology Australia 30.5 (2009): 208-209.


Philippon, Alain, Guillaume Arlet, and George A. Jacoby. "Plasmid-determined AmpC-type β-lactamases." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 46.1 (2002): 1-11.