A 24 year old male is admitted to the ICU following a spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage. He is noted to have labile blood pressure that is difficult to control, and a persistent tachycardia in spite of high dose sedatives. Further investigation reveals raised plasma and urinary catecholamines. List 4 potential causes of the above biochemical finding in this patient.
Proudly, I can report that there is an article out there (free full text) which responds to the question, "what non-phaeochromocytoma aetiology could be causing raised plasma catecholamine levels?" Thank you for answering, David S. Goldstein.
Autonomic nervous system
Goldstein, David S., Graeme Eisenhofer, and Irwin J. Kopin. "Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans."Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 305.3 (2003): 800-811.