List 3 causes of a mid-diastolic  murmur over the apex

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College Answer

°     Mitral stenosis

°     Severe aortic regurgitation – Autin Flint murmur

°     Severe mitral regurgitation

°     Significant left to right shunt – VSD, PDA

°     Atrial myxoma

°     Carey-Coombs murmur

Discussion

This is a repeat question.

For some reason the college love their mid-diastolic apical murmurs.

Like the identical Question 3.2 from 2010(1), but unlike the very similar Question 26.3 from 2011(2), this specifically asks for MID-diastolic murmurs.

References

Clinical Examination of the Critically Ill Patient, 3rd edition by L.I.G. Worthley - which can be ordered from our college here.

Clinical Examination: whatever edition, by Talley and O'Connor. Can be acquired any damn where