Question 5.1

List 4 clinical signs of portal hypertension.

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College Answer

List 4 clinical signs of portal hypertension.

•     Splenomegaly
•    Caput medusae
•     Ascites
•    Haemorrhoids on rectal examination
•    Haematemesis? Melaena


This is fairly straightforward.

  • Ascites
  • Caput medusae
  • Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
  • Haemorrhoids
  • Oesophageal varices (and thus haematemesis)


Escorsell, Angels, Joan Carles García-Pagán, and Jaume Bosch. "Assessment of portal hypertension in humans." Clinics in liver disease 5.3 (2001): 575-589.


de Franchis, Roberto. "Revising consensus in portal hypertension: report of the Baveno V consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension." Journal of hepatology 53.4 (2010): 762-768.