You are called to a cardiac arrest. The following rhythm was evident on your arrival and the patient was pulseless.

Image provided in examination paper

a)         List 5 causes of this presentation

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College Answer

This is PEA
•    Tension pneumothorax
•     Tamponade
•    PE
•     Hypovolemia
•     Hypothermia

Discussion

It is difficult to justify a prolonged discussion for something like this.

The image I have provided is from LITFL, and demonstrates hypothermia with shiver artefact, but really any sort of organised electrical activity would have sufficed.