List the techniques / measurements that are available to assess the circulation status of a patient in the intensive care unit.
- Physical examination [warm hands, urine output, mentation]
- Vital signs – heart rate, blood pressure, oxygenation Lactate
- Urine output
- Blood pressure response to passive leg raise or fluid challenge
- Invasive arterial monitoring [Vigileo/LiDCO (cardiac output, stroke volume variation, stroke volume)]
- Central venous pressure measurement, central venous oxygen saturation
- Invasive cardiac monitoring
- PiCCO measurements [Intra thoracic blood volume, global end diastolic volume, cardiac output, stroke volume variation]
- Pulmonary Artery Flotation Catheter [pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygenation]
- Echocardiogram [cardiac output, left ventricular ejection fraction, IVC collapsibility]
- Transcutaneous Doppler [cardiac output/stroke volume variation]
- Research tools
- Techniques for measuring microvascular perfusion eg contrast US, SDF Techniques for measuring tissue oxygenation eg, gastric tonometry [D pCO2], sublingual tonometry, microdialysis
- Impedance cardiography [cardiac output, stroke volume variation, stroke volume]
This question is a "list" question, and thus one should resist the temptation to critically evaluate, or to compare and contrast. A list of techniques is reasonably easy to generate. Specifically, techniques to assess volume-responsiveness are extensively discussed in the section concerned with Fluid Resuscitation, Vasopressors and Inotropes. If one needed to generate a dumb noncomparative list for whatever reason, one should do so in a manner which follows a system of some sort.
Static indices of fluid responsiveness
Dynamic indices of fluid responsiveness
Assessment of circulatory efficacy
Assessment of microcirculation
Marik, Paul E. "Hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy." Transfusion Alternatives in Transfusion Medicine 11.3 (2010): 102-112.