List the main feature(s) of these fundoscopy images a), b) and c) and name the conditions associated with them.

The images below are not from the college paper, but rather harvested from Google Images, labelled for non-commerical reuse.

a)

b)

c)

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College Answer

  • a) Retinal Haemorrhage (Coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia)
  • b) Papilloedema (Raised intracranial pressure)
  • c) Optic disc swelling, retinal haemorrhages and infarcts or cotton wool spots. (Malignant Hypertension)

Discussion

This is a bog-standard pattern recognition question.

I need to point out that the image in a) is one of branch retinal vein occlusion - it just so happens that it also features retinal haemorrhage.

Common fundoscopy findings are discussed with (slightly) more detail in the relevant Required Reading section.

References

The Stanford School of Medicine has an excellent resource on fundoscopy.

So does Walker's Clinical Methods (3rd ed, 1990) - the chapter on fundoscopy is particularly good for pathophysiological correlations.