The following results were obtained from a patient in the ICU
Adult Norma' Range
10.0 - 15.0
International normalised ratio (INR)
0.80 - 1.20
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
25.0 -35 0
a) List four possible causes. (20% marks)
- Anticoagulants – e.g. heparin
- Lupus anticoagulant-type inhibitors
- Factor deficiencies – FXI, XII
This is somewhat unsatisfying, as no history is given other than the patient is in ICU.
In summary, the results are:
- Normal PT; slightly elevated INR (1.2)
- Slightly elevated APTT
- Borderline low fibrinogen
Of these results the only actually abnormal one is the APTT.
Four possible causes of a slightly raised APTT are:
- Dilutional coagulopathy (as PT is also borderline)
- Heparin therapy
- Factors 8, 9 11 or 12 deficiency
- von Willebrand's disease
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