Please note: Marks for the following questions are equally distributed.
a) List five relative contraindications to the use of a heat and moisture exchange filter.
b) List six precautions to consider when applying defibrillation pads.
c) List five complications that may arise from use of an intraosseous needle.
This question is a concatenation of Question 15.1 and Question 15.2 from the first paper of 2012. Apart from this, no previous questions have asked about the contraindications for the use of a HME.
Contraindications to the use of a HME include:
With the defib pads, avoid the following:
With intraossesous needle devices, the following complications occur:
With sternal approach:
Wilkes, A. R. "Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 1–history, principles and efficiency."Anaesthesia 66.1 (2011): 31-39.
Wilkes, A. R. "Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 2–practical use, including problems, and their use with paediatric patients." Anaesthesia 66.1 (2011): 40-51.
ARC: Guideline 11.4: Electrical Therapy for Adult Advanced Life Support
Day, Michael W. "Intraosseous devices for intravascular access in adult trauma patients." Critical care nurse 31.2 (2011): 76-90.
Dev, Shelly P., et al. "Insertion of an Intraosseous Needle in Adults." New England Journal of Medicine 370.24 (2014).
James Cheung, Warren, Hans Rosenberg, and Christian Vaillancourt. "Barriers and Facilitators to Intraosseous Access in Adult Resuscitations When Peripheral Intravenous Access Is Not Achievable." Academic Emergency Medicine 21.3 (2014): 250-256.