With regard to posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES), outline the risk factors, clinical features, differential diagnoses, radiological findings and management.
Onset acute – days/weeks
Encephalopathy -fluctuating conscious level to coma
Vasogenic oedema in the posterior circulation territories on MRI
Aggressive blood pressure control
Cease any precipitating agents
This is the second time PRES has appeared in the written papers. Little can be done to improve the direct brevity of the college answer, other than to add references and change structure.
Other associated conditions
Clinical features (Fugate and Rabenstein, Lancet, 2015)
Differential diagnosis (from UpToDate)
Radiological findings (Swarnalatha et al, 2012)
Management of PRES:
Staykov, Dimitre, and Stefan Schwab. "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome." Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 27.1 (2012): 11-24.
Bartynski, W. S. "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, part 1: fundamental imaging and clinical features." American Journal of Neuroradiology 29.6 (2008): 1036-1042.
Bartynski, W. S. "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, part 2: controversies surrounding pathophysiology of vasogenic edema." American Journal of Neuroradiology 29.6 (2008): 1043-1049.
Grioni, Daniele, et al. "The diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome." The Lancet Neurology 14.11 (2015): 1073-1074.
Fugate, Jennifer E., and Alejandro A. Rabinstein. "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: clinical and radiological manifestations, pathophysiology, and outstanding questions." The Lancet Neurology 14.9 (2015): 914-925.
MacKenzie, ERIC T., et al. "Effects of acutely induced hypertension in cats on pial arteriolar caliber, local cerebral blood flow, and the blood-brain barrier." Circulation research 39.1 (1976): 33-41.
G Swarnalatha, R Ram, B. H. S. Pai, KV Dakshinamurty "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in minimal change disease" Indian Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 22, No. 2, March-April, 2012, pp. 153-154
Hobson, Esther V., Ian Craven, and S. Catrin Blank. "Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a truly treatable neurologic illness." Peritoneal Dialysis International 32.6 (2012): 590-594.