List four clinical signs of severity in chronic aortic regurgitation. (40% marks)
• Collapsing pulse/wide pulse pressure
• Length of decrescendo diastolic murmur
• LV third heart sound
• Soft A2
• Austin Flint (mid-diastolic) murmur
• Left ventricular failure
• Displaced apex beat
This question closely resembles the first part of Question 16 from the first paper of 2016, which expected the candidates to "list five clinical signs of severity in chronic aortic regurgitation. (25% marks)". The college answer here is a direct cut-and-paste. The author, emboldened by this, has reproduced the discussion section for Question 16 below, with neither useful modification nor any sense of shame.
One might expect that features suggestive of severity in chronic AR would be mainly features related to the effect of AR on cardiac function, not just generic features of AR
Generic features of AR are as follows:
Nicholas Joseph Talley, Simon O'Connor; Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis (7th ed)
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