You are asked to review a 25-year-old patient with severe diarrhoea. He is two weeks post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Drugs: promotility agents, antibiotics
Infection – multiple possible organisms
Outline your assessment and management
Details of the indication for and type of transplant – esp. HLA matching etc.
Details of pre-transplant chemo/radiation etc.
Course and complications post-transplant
Whether engraftment has occurred
Medication history – esp. antibiotics
Details related to diarrhoea – associated with pain, blood etc,
General physical with specific attention to Volume status
Abdominal examination – signs of peritonitis Signs of GVHD: rash, liver tenderness
Standard blood tests -FBC, Electrolytes, LFT’s, Cultures Stool culture including C difficile PCR
Plain AXR CT abdomen
Sigmoidoscopy +- biopsy
Fluid resuscitation – volume loss replaced by saline or balanced salt solution
Electrolyte replacement – as required but particularly potassium and magnesium
Nutrition – general enteral nutrition is satisfactory but TPN may be required where whole bowel rest is required
Antidiarrheal – loperamide can be used once infectious cause has been excluded
Anti-secretory – octreotide – particularly in early GvHD
Infection control, contact proportions
Treatment of underlying cause e.g. GVHD, C Diff.
This question is functionally quite similar to Question 11 from the first paper of 2014, except in 20144 this patient was a 65-year-old male, 18 days following BMT for multiple myeloma, and who clearly has some serious abdominal pathology.
The causes of diarrrhoea in a bone marrow transplant recipient are so vastly numerous that they require a table to manage them:
Consequences of BMT
UpToDate have a good article on acute diarrhoea for the paying customer.
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Ferrie, Suzie, and Vivienne East. "Managing diarrhoea in intensive care."Australian Critical Care 20.1 (2007): 7-13.
Pawlowski, Sean W., Cirle Alcantara Warren, and Richard Guerrant. "Diagnosis and treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea." Gastroenterology 136.6 (2009): 1874-1886.
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Timothy A. Woods. "Diarrhea." Chapter 88 in: Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990.
Guerrant, Richard L., et al. "Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea." Clinical infectious diseases 32.3 (2001): 331-351.
Cox, George J., et al. "Etiology and outcome of diarrhea after marrow transplantation: a prospective study." Gastroenterology 107.5 (1994): 1398-1407.
Hamdeh, Shadi, et al. "Clinical approach to diarrheal disorders in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients." World Journal of Hematology 5.1 (2016): 23-30.