A tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is a rare but life-threatening complication of tracheostomy.
a) What are the contributing factors for TIF formation? (30% marks)
b) What are the clinical features that make you suspect a TIF and how would you confirm the diagnosis? (30% marks)
c) What is your management of a TIF? (40% marks)
This was not well answered overall with a poor knowledge of this complication demonstrated.
Contributing factors to the formation of tracho-innominate fistula:
Clinical features of tracheo-innominate fistula
Management of tracheo-innominate fistula
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