Regarding prolonged intravenous infusions of beta-lactam antibiotics in septic patients:
a) Explain the pharmacological rationale for this method of drug delivery. (30% marks)
b) List the advantages and disadvantages of this method of drug delivery. (40% marks)
c) What is the available evidence for this method of drug delivery? (30% marks)
Nicolau, David P. "Pharmacodynamic optimization of β-lactams in the patient care setting." Critical Care 12.4 (2008): 1-5.
Martinez, Marilyn N., Mark G. Papich, and George L. Drusano. "Dosing regimen matters: the importance of early intervention and rapid attainment of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56.6 (2012): 2795-2805.
MacVane, Shawn H., Joseph L. Kuti, and David P. Nicolau. "Prolonging β-lactam infusion: a review of the rationale and evidence, and guidance for implementation." International journal of antimicrobial agents 43.2 (2014): 105-113.
Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H., et al. "Continuous beta-lactam infusion in critically ill patients: the clinical evidence." Annals of intensive care 2.1 (2012): 1-16.
Rodvold, Keith A. "Pharmacodynamics of antiinfective therapy: taking what we know to the patient's bedside." Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy 21.11P2 (2001): 319S-330S.
AA, Mohd Hafiz, et al. "Continuous infusion vs. bolus dosing: implications for beta-lactam antibiotics." Minerva anestesiologica 78.1 (2011): 94-104.
Craig, WA1, and S. C. Ebert. "Continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 36.12 (1992): 2577-2583.
Kondo, Yutaka, et al. "Prolonged versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotics intravenous infusion strategy in sepsis or septic shock patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized trials." Journal of intensive care 8.1 (2020): 1-11.
Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H., et al. "Beta-Lactam Infusion in Severe Sepsis (BLISS): a prospective, two-centre, open-labelled randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent beta-lactam infusion in critically ill patients with severe sepsis." Intensive care medicine 42.10 (2016): 1535-1545.
Dulhunty, Joel M., et al. "A multicenter randomized trial of continuous versus intermittent β-lactam infusion in severe sepsis." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 192.11 (2015): 1298-1305.
Dulhunty, Joel M., et al. "Continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics in severe sepsis: a multicenter double-blind, randomized controlled trial." Clinical infectious diseases 56.2 (2013): 236-244.