With regard to severe post-partum haemorrhage (PPH):
a) List the causes. (20% marks)
b) Outline the management. (80% marks)
a) Causes of PPH
This structure and a lot of the components are borrowed from the RANZCOG statement C-Obs 43.
Oh's Manual, Chapter 64 ("General obstetric emergencies") by Winnie TP Wan and Tony Gin, p. 684
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Alfirevic, Zarko, et al. "Use of recombinant activated factor VII in primary postpartum hemorrhage: the Northern European registry 2000–2004." Obstetrics & Gynecology 110.6 (2007): 1270-1278.
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Doumouchtsis, S. K., et al. "Menstrual and fertility outcomes following the surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 121.4 (2014): 382-388.
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World Health Organization. WHO recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. World Health Organization, 2012.
Weeks, A. "The prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: what do we know, and where do we go to next?." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology122.2 (2015): 202-210.
Sheiner, Eyal, et al. "Obstetric risk factors and outcome of pregnancies complicated with early postpartum hemorrhage: a population-based study." The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 18.3 (2005): 149-154.
Mousa, Hatem A., and Steven Walkinshaw. "Major postpartum haemorrhage." Current opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology13.6 (2001): 595-603.
Mousa, Hatem A., et al. "Treatment for primary postpartum haemorrhage." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2.2 (2014): CD003249.