a) List four patient factors that determine central venous pressure (CVP). (20% marks)
b) List four clinical conditions that may be detected from an abnormal central venous waveform in a euvolaemic patient and for each condition describe the associated waveform features.
c) Explain how one performs and interprets a passive leg raise manoeuvre including its physiological basis, reliability, and limitations in clinical practice. (60% marks)
Determinants of central venous pressure, where you can pick any four of the following:
Characteristic CVP waveforms are seen in the following settings (pick four, any four):
Passive leg raise autotransfusion:
1) Drop the patient's torso to supine position
2) Raise both legs to 45° using the mechanical bed
3) Keep them up for 60-90 seconds
4) Measure the change in stroke volume
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