a) List five patient factors associated with an increased risk of bleeding after a renal biopsy. (20% marks)
b) List three steps that may be taken prior to the procedure to reduce the risk of bleeding after a renal biopsy. (20% marks)
c) Outline three management strategies of major bleeding after a renal biopsy. Include the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. (60% marks)
a) Risk factors for bleeding after kidney biopsy include:
|Modifiable risk factors||Non-modifiable risk factors|
Possible steps to reduce the risk of bleeding include:
Three options are surgery, endovascular repair/embolisation, or conservative management.
Palsson, Ragnar, et al. "Bleeding complications after percutaneous native kidney biopsy: results from the Boston kidney biopsy cohort." Kidney International Reports 5.4 (2020): 511-518.
Whittier, William L. "Complications of the percutaneous kidney biopsy." Advances in chronic kidney disease 19.3 (2012): 179-187.
Chan, Y. C., et al. "Management of spontaneous and iatrogenic retroperitoneal haemorrhage: conservative management, endovascular intervention or open surgery?." International journal of clinical practice 62.10 (2008): 1604-1613.