Classify the commonly used inotropic agents and list their mechanisms of action.
Candidates could use a number of different classifications, however, were required to include
all of the major groups of agents. Most made some mention of the sympathomimetics,
however failed to sub-classify these, or confused catecols versus non-catecols, or naturally
occurring versus synthetic agents. Other agents, such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors,
calcium sensitisers, cardiac glycosides, or calcium itself received minimal attention.
Mechanisms of action required more than listing adrenergic receptor types. Some listing or
discussion of the sub-cellular mechanisms was necessary. Comment about intracellular
calcium being the final common end-point would have scored additional marks
Syllabus C2d 2
Reference: Stoelting 4th edition 293-320
Katzung 10th edition 121- 198
Rang and Dale 6th edition 168-187 290-291