Explain the ABO blood groups and how blood group is determined. How is blood tested for compatibility using the ABO system?
The main points candidates were expected to cover included a detailed discussion of the ABO
antigens, the evolution of IgM antibodies to these antigens and the prevalence of blood
groups in the general population. Answers tabulating blood groups against expected antigens
and antibodies present as well as agglutination reactions to anti-sera were most effective.
Discussion of the saline agglutination test was essential and extra marks were awarded for mention of the Coombs test. Candidates were required to demonstrate an understanding of
cross-matching, specifically the testing of donor red blood cells against recipient serum.
Syllabus J1 2.a
References: Review of Medical Physiology (Chapter 27), 22nd ed.
Ganong, pp. 537-539.
|Group||Antigens||Antibodies||Can receive blood from:||Can donate blood to:|
|A||A||Anti-B||A and O||A and AB|
|B||B||Anti-A||B and O||B and AB|
|AB||A and B||None||Everybody||AB|
Anti-A and Anti-B
Pourazar, Abbasali. "Red cell antigens: Structure and function." Asian journal of transfusion science 1.1 (2007): 24.
Daniels, G. "Structure and function of red cell surface antigens." ISBT Science Series 1.1 (2006): 3-8.
Pawlak, Z., and M. Lopez. "Development of antigens ABH and Ii in children between 0 to 16 years old." Revue francaise de transfusion et immuno-hematologie 22.3 (1979): 253-263.
Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L. & Stryer, L. (2007). Biochemistry, 6th Ed. (p. 315). New York, NY: W.H. Freeman
ANZSBT: GUIDELINES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF BLOOD PRODUCTS (2018)
British Committee for Standards in Haematology, et al. "Guidelines for pre‐transfusion compatibility procedures in blood transfusion laboratories." Transfusion Medicine 23.1 (2013): 3-35.