Classify antiarrhythmic drugs, including their mechanisms of action, and give an
example of one drug from each group.
This question again highlighted the importance of candidates utilising a predetermined format
or structure to their questions. Well structured responses were less likely to overlook
important details, which was the predominate weakness for some candidates. A table format
was one useful way of displaying a good answer, for example
Reference Text: Goodman and Gillman Chp 34
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Carmeliet, Edward, and Kanigula Mubagwa. "Antiarrhythmic drugs and cardiac ion channels: mechanisms of action." Progress in biophysics and molecular biology 70.1 (1998): 1-72.
Vaughan Williams, E. M. "Classification of antiarrhythmic drugs." Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias. Sweden, Astra 1970. 1970.
Williams, EM Vaughan. "A classification of antiarrhythmic actions reassessed after a decade of new drugs." The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24.4 (1984): 129-147.
Lei, Ming, et al. "Modernized classification of cardiac antiarrhythmic drugs." Circulation 138.17 (2018): 1879-1896.