Outline the pharmacology of an opioid injected into the spinal intrathecal space.
Though it would be unusual for patients to receive spinal opioids whilst they are in intensive
care, the complications of spinal opioids are not an uncommon reason for admission to
intensive care thus it is important candidates understand their pharmacology. Answers
generally lacked structure. Outlining pharmacology should include pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics and side effects (both common and dangerous). An explanation of the
effect of lipid solubility was expected. Following a structure will ensure a more complete
Reference: Neural Blockade. 3rd edition Cousins and Bridenbaugh