Define afterload (10% of mark).
Describe the factors that can affect left ventricular afterload (90% of mark).
Many definitions of afterload were accepted. The main factors affecting left ventricular
afterload are systemic vascular resistance, aortic impedance and ventricular radius. Other
factors include blood viscosity and positive intrathoracic pressure. Good answers expanded
on the points above. Candidates who failed this question did not have enough facts.
Syllabus C1c C2c
Reference: Bray 4th edition p 342-344 and p 360-361