Describe the physiology of vomiting.
For a good answer, candidates were expected to take the following approach and
content of information.
Triggers or initiators of vomiting include:
Most candidates answered this question well. Antiemetic drugs and their mechanism
of action gained no marks.
This is a rare and welcome set of college comments which very clearly outlines what an ideal answer would have been, making any alternative model answer pointless. Still, one is offered here, purely to be contrary:
Neurology of nausea and vomiting:
Mechanics of vomiting:
Horn, Charles C. "The physiology of vomiting." Nausea and Vomiting. Springer, Cham, 2017. 15-25.
Parkes J.D. (1986) A Neurologist’s View of Nausea and Vomiting. In: Davis C.J., Lake-Bakaar G.V., Grahame-Smith D.G. (eds) Nausea and Vomiting: Mechanisms and Treatment. Advances in Applied Neurological Sciences, vol 3. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-70479-6_12
Singh, Prashant, Sonia S. Yoon, and Braden Kuo. "Nausea: a review of pathophysiology and therapeutics." Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology 9.1 (2016): 98-112.
Stern, R. M. "The psychophysiology of nausea." Acta Biologica Hungarica 53.4 (2002): 589-599.
Horn, Charles C. "Why is the neurobiology of nausea and vomiting so important?." Appetite 50.2-3 (2008): 430-434.
Napadow, Vitaly, et al. "The brain circuitry underlying the temporal evolution of nausea in humans." Cerebral cortex 23.4 (2013): 806-813.
Donnerer, Josef. "The emetic reflex arc." Antiemetic therapy (2003): 1.
Willems, J. L., and R. A. Lefebvre. "Peripheral nervous pathways involved in nausea and vomiting." Nausea and vomiting: Mechanisms and treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986. 56-64.
Koga, Tomoshige, and Hiroyuki Fukuda. "Descending pathway from the central pattern generator of vomiting." Neuroreport 8.11 (1997): 2587-2590.
Lang, Ivan M. "Digestive tract motor correlates of vomiting and nausea." Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology 68.2 (1990): 242-253.