Outline the pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of action of carvedilol and spironolactone.
Carvedilol and spironolactone are common drugs used in the management of cardiac
failure. They have different mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics. Both are drugs
listed in the Syllabus as Level B and thus candidates are expected to have a general
understanding of their pharmacology. Many candidates gave class specific information
about beta blockers rather than demonstrating an understanding of carvedilol`s particular
properties. Most candidates were able to score marks by commenting upon the results of
aldosterone antagonism suggesting an understanding of the physiology of this hormone but appeared to know little more about the pharmacology of spironolactone. Overall there was
insufficient information provided by most candidates for both drugs.