Outline the physiological responses to anaemia. (The specific physiological responses to 
hypovolaemia are NOT required.) 

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College Answer

It was expected candidates would expand on the central role haemoglobin has in oxygen delivery and that in the presence of reduced haemoglobin there are various efforts aimed at maintaining oxygen delivery. Cardiac output is increased, systemic vascular resistance is reduced, modifications are seen in regional circulations and as tissue oxygenation begins to falter then the end products of anaerobic metabolism provide a further stimulus to enhance cardiac out and tissue oxygen delivery. Better answers also included a mention of additional factors that enhance tolerance of chronic anaemia (e.g.angiogenesis).