Classify bacteria according to the Gram stain system and their shape.

Give two examples for each classification. (40% of marks)

List with examples the mechanisms of bacterial  antibiotic resistance. (60% of marks)

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College Answer

Generally candidates provided an accurate classification of bacteria based upon Gram staining 
and shape. None or poorly staining organisms were often overlooked. Mechanism of 
resistance was also well covered, with examples. Areas of weakness were a lack of descriptive 
detail and/or omission of an example for each mechanism. Mechanisms such as metabolic 
blockade of essential pathways for antibacterial action and active removal of intracellular 
antibiotic were more commonly omitted.