Outline the anatomy of the diaphragm (70% of marks).
Describe the function of the diaphragm in respiration (30% of marks).
The diaphragm is the principal muscle of respiration. Important and unique features of its
anatomy include a central tendon that blends with the pericardium above and the fibrous
capsule of the liver below, arcuate ligaments and crura that are important points of muscle
insertion. There are also three major and three minor openings that allow passage of structures
between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Candidates who had studied anatomy of the
diaphragm were clearly distinguishable from those who had not.
Candidates who followed a traditional template for anatomy answers scored better, providing
answers that covered the breath of the topic.