Describe the counter-current mechanisms in the kidney (60% of marks) and in the skin (40% of marks).
Most answers gave a good account of counter currents in the kidney but few described the
generation of the counter current multiplier arrangement. Many candidates did not discuss
counter current mechanisms in the skin but instead, focussed on thermal control by the skin
Pallone, Thomas L., et al. "Countercurrent exchange in the renal medulla." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 284.5 (2003): R1153-R1175.
Sands, Jeff M., and Juha P. Kokko. "Current concepts of the countercurrent multiplication system." Kidney International Supplement 57 (1996).
Sands, Jeff M., and Harold E. Layton. "The physiology of urinary concentration: an update." Seminars in nephrology. Vol. 29. No. 3. WB Saunders, 2009.