Describe the physiological consequences of decreasing the functional residual capacity (FRC) in an adult by 1 litre.
High scoring answers began with a definition and normal values, followed by a detailed list of the consequences of decreasing the FRC. Some candidates included descriptions of the normal function of FRC, conditions that decrease FRC and ways of improving reduced FRC. These were not required and did not attract marks. Diagrams require correctly labelled axes, values & units.
This question is identical to Question 15 from the second paper of 2010, except this time 70% of trainees passed (instead of 33%), which probably demonstrates the benefit of doing past papers.
Effects of decreased FRC on lung mechanics
Effect of decreased FRC on gas exchange
Effects of decreased FRC on the pulmonary circulation
Wanger, J., et al. "Standardisation of the measurement of lung volumes." European respiratory journal 26.3 (2005): 511-522.
Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal. "The physiological basis and clinical significance of lung volume measurements." Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine 12.1 (2017): 3.
Hopkins, Erin, and Sandeep Sharma. "Physiology, Functional Residual Capacity." StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2019.