Question 21

Describe and compare the action potentials from cardiac ventricular muscle and the sinoatrial node.

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College Answer

This topic was well understood and answered by most candidates. Some candidates had a
good knowledge base but missed out on potential marks by failing to compare and contrast. A
diagram outlining the various phases was a useful way to approach the question.

Discussion

A "diagram outlining various phases" would probably look something like this:

Phases of the myocyte and pacemaker action potential

However, for a "compare & contrast" SAQ, the best way to earn marks is with a tabulated answer:

A Comparison of the Ionic Events
During the Cardiac Action Potentials
in the Myocyte and the Pacemaker Cell

Cell Ventricular Myocyte Pacemaker cell
Resting potential -90 mV -60 mV
Threshold Potential -70 mV - 40 mV
Phase 4
  • Resting potential
  • Stable plateau
  • Maintained by the Ik1  inward rectifying potassium current
  • Slow depolarisation
  • Maintained by the If inward rectifying potassium current
Phase 0
  • Rapid depolarisation
  • Mediated by fast voltage-gated sodium channels
  • Slow depolarisation
  • Mediated by L-type calcium channels
Phase 1
  • Rapid repolarisation
  • Mediated by transient outward potassium currents (Ito) and the 
  • No Phase 1 in the pacemaker action potential
Phase 2
  • Prolonged plateau at ~ 0mV
  • Lasts ~ 100-200 msec
  • Mediated by L-type calcium channels
  • No real Phase 2 in the pacemaker action potential
Phase 3
  • Rapid repolarisation
  • Mediated by the Ikr, Iks and Ik1 potassium currents 
  • More gradual repolarisation
  • Mediated by the Ikr, Iks and Ik1 potassium currents 

References

Antoni, H. "Electrophysiology of the heart at the single cell level and cardiac rhythmogenesis.Comprehensive Human Physiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1996. 1825-1842.

Pinnell, Jeremy, Simon Turner, and Simon Howell. "Cardiac muscle physiology." Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain 7.3 (2007): 85-88.

Bers, Donald M. "Cardiac excitation–contraction coupling.Nature 415.6868 (2002): 198-205.

Draper, Morrell Henry, and Silvio Weidmann. "Cardiac resting and action potentials recorded with an intracellular electrode." The Journal of physiology 115.1 (1951): 74-94.

Bers, Donald M. "Cardiac excitation–contraction coupling." Nature 415.6868 (2002): 198-205.

DiFrancesco, Dario. "Pacemaker mechanisms in cardiac tissue." Annual review of physiology 55.1 (1993): 455-472.

Noma, Akinori. "Ionic mechanisms of the cardiac pacemaker potential." Japanese heart journal 37.5 (1996): 673-682.

Grunnet, Morten. "Repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Does an increase in repolarization capacity constitute a new anti‐arrhythmic principle?." Acta physiologica 198 (2010): 1-48.