Compare and contrast non-invasive oscillometric and invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring.
There were some good answers, though invasive BP measurement was better answered than oscillometry. Many candidates provided extensive detail in one area i.e. the workings of a Wheatstone bridge, to the detriment of a balanced answer. Few seemed to have a structure consisting of "equipment, method, sources of error, advantages, disadvantages" or similar and missed providing important information as a result. Several described auscultatory non-invasive blood pressure measurement, rather than oscillometry, which although related in principle is a different process
As it appears that the CICM examiners wanted their answer in the format of "equipment, method, sources of error, advantages, disadvantages", that is the structure I chose for this table:
|Domain||Invasive (arterial catheter)||Oscillometric cuff measurement|
|Physical principles and method||
|Sources of error||
Ward, Matthew, and Jeremy A. Langton. "Blood pressure measurement." Continuing education in anaesthesia, critical care & pain 7.4 (2007): 122-126.
Meidert, Agnes S., and Bernd Saugel. "Techniques for non-invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure." Frontiers in medicine 4 (2018): 231.
Sorvoja, Hannu, and Risto Myllyla. "Noninvasive blood pressure measurement methods." Molecular and quantum acoustics 27 (2006): 239-264.
Geddes, Leslie Alexander. Handbook of blood pressure measurement. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
Geddes, Leslie A. "Counterpressure: the concept that made the indirect measurement of blood pressure possible." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 17.6 (1998): 85-87.
Lewis, Philip S. "Oscillometric measurement of blood pressure: a simplified explanation. A technical note on behalf of the British and Irish Hypertension Society." Journal of human hypertension 33.5 (2019): 349-351.
Juroszek, Barbara. "The sources of errors in the oscillometric blood pressure measurements." Metrology and Measurement Systems 15.4 (2008): 539-549.