Describe the physiology of the NMDA (N-Methyl D-aspartate) receptor (40% of marks). Outline the pharmacology of ketamine (60% of marks).
The NMDA receptor is a ligand gated voltage dependent ion channel located on post synaptic membranes throughout the CNS, with glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, its natural ligand. A brief description of its structure, roles of glycine and magnesium, ions conducted, result of activation, role in memory and learning and agonists/antagonists was expected. Detail on structure and functions of the receptor were a common omission. Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative, is a non-competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor. It is presented as a racemic mixture or as the single S(+) enantiomer (2-3 X potency). Administration routes and doses scored marks. Pharmacodynamics were generally well covered including CVS (direct and indirect effects), CNS (anaesthesia, analgesia, amnesia, delirium, effects on CBF and ICP) respiratory (bronchodilator with preservation of airway reflexes) GIT effects (salivation, N and V). Knowledge of specific pharmacokinetic parameters was less well covered, including low oral bioavailability and protein binding and active metabolite (norketamine).