Explain respiratory compliance and outline the factors that affect it. 

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College Answer

Answers were generally well structured. Better answers described lung and chest wall compliance and the pressures which are used to calculate compliance. Better answers displayed an understanding of dynamic, static and specific compliance and provided a reasonably comprehensive list of the physiological factors affecting chest and lung compliance.

Discussion

  • Respiratory compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in transmural pressure gradient. It is usually about 100ml/cm H2O.
  • Static compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in pressure in the absence of flow. It is composed of:
    • Chest wall compliance (usually 200ml/cm H2O.
    • Lung tissue compliance (also usually cm H2O.)
  • Dynamic compliance is defined as the change in lung volume per unit change in pressure in the presence of flow. Its components are
    • Chest wall compliance
    • Lung tissue compliance
    • Airway resistance (which makes it frequency-dependent)
  • Specific compliance is compliance that is normalized by a lung volume, usually FRC. It is used to compare compliance between lungs of different volumes (eg. child and adult)

Factors which affect compliance can be divided into chest wall factors and lung factors:

Factors which Affect Respiratory Compliance
Lung compliance Chest wall compliance

Increased  lung compliance

  • Lung surfactant
  • Lung volume: compliance is at its highest at FRC
  • Posture (supine, upright)
  • Loss of lung conective tissue associated with age
  • Emphysema

Increased chest wall complance

  • Ehler-Dahlos syndrome and other connective tissue diseases associated with increased connective tissue elasticity
  • Rib resection
  • Cachexia
  • Flail segment rib fractures
  • Open chest (eg clamshell)

Decreased static lung compliance

  • Loss of surfactant (eg. ARDS)
  • Decreased lung elasticity
    • Pulmonary fibrosis
    • Pulmonary oedema
  • Decreased functional lung volume
    • Pneumonectomy or lobectomy
    • Pneumonia
    • Atelectasis
    • Small stature
  • Alveolar derecruitment
  • Alveolar overdistension

Decreased dynamic lung compliance

  • Increased airway resistance (eg. asthma)
  • Increased air flow (increased resp rate)

Decreased chest wall compliance

  • Structural abnormalities
    • Kyphosis / scoliosis
    • Pectus excavatum
    • Circumferential burns
    • Surgical rib fixation
  • Functional abnormalities
    • Muscle spasm, eg. seizure or tetanus
  • Extrathoracic influences on chest/diaphragmatic excursion
    • Obesity
    • Abdominal compartment syndrome
    • Prone position

References

References

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Katsoulis, K. Konstantinos, Konstantinos Kostikas, and Theodore Kontakiotis. "Techniques for assessing small airways function: Possible applications in asthma and COPD." Respiratory medicine 119 (2016): e2-e9.

Kannangara, Oliver, Jennifer L. Dickson, and J. Geoffrey Chase. "Specific compliance: is it truly independent of lung volume?." IFAC-PapersOnLine 51.27 (2018): 299-304.