Describe the structure and function of adult haemoglobin.
Marks were awarded for the two components of this question – structure and function. The structure component was often only briefly described with a cursory overview provided; however, this component contributed around half of the available marks. Many candidates were unable to accurately describe the structural components of the haemoglobin molecule. The functional component was handled better – however much time was wasted with detailed drawings of the oxyhemoglobin curve (not many marks awarded for this). The basic function of haemoglobin carriage of oxygen and carbon dioxide was known, but detail was often missing about its role as a buffer or its role in the metabolism of nitric oxide.
Marengo-Rowe, Alain J. "Structure-function relations of human hemoglobins." Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. Vol. 19. No. 3. Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Thomas, Caroline, and Andrew B. Lumb. "Physiology of haemoglobin." Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain 12.5 (2012): 251-256.
Jensen, Frank B., Angela Fago, and Roy E. Weber. "Hemoglobin structure and function." Fish physiology 17 (1998): 1-40.
Giardina, Bruno, et al. "The multiple functions of hemoglobin." Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology 30.3 (1995): 165-196.
Helms, Christine, and Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro. "Hemoglobin-mediated nitric oxide signaling." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 61 (2013): 464-472.