Question 9

Outline the daily nutritional requirements, including electrolytes, for a normal 70 kg adult.

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College Answer

This topic is well covered in the recommended physiology textbooks. Many answers unfortunately simply listed the various components without providing sufficient detail; outline questions require some context around the key points as opposed to just a list.

Most candidates had a good estimate for the basal energy requirements of a resting adult. Good candidates were able to outline the g/kg daily protein requirements and the distribution of remaining energy intake between carbohydrates and lipids and included how this may change during periods of stress. They also stated the energy derived per gram of each of those food groups. Few candidates mentioned the need to include essential amino acids. Similarly, with fat intake, few candidates mentioned the need for essential fatty acids. A definition of “vitamin” would have received credit. Most candidates were able to classify vitamins as water soluble or fat soluble. Most candidates mentioned trace elements (with an abbreviated list) and mentioned bone minerals. A daily intake requirement for Na and K was expected, though not for bone minerals or trace elements.