Question 11

Outline the Vaughan Williams classification of anti-arhythmic drugs with examples
(30% of Marks). Describe the relevant pharmacology of adenosine (70% of Marks)

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College Answer

The high pass rate of this question was largely due to the ability of most candidates to reproduce the VW classification, with correct information regarding each class with examples. The pharmacology of adenosine was less consistently covered and whilst most kept to the usual pharmacology structure correct detail was often lacking to achieve high marks for this section.



Vaughan Williams, E. M. "Classification of antiarrhythmic drugs." Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias. Sweden, Astra 1970. 1970.

Williams, EM Vaughan. "A classification of antiarrhythmic actions reassessed after a decade of new drugs." The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24.4 (1984): 129-147.

Lei, Ming, et al. "Modernized classification of cardiac antiarrhythmic drugs." Circulation 138.17 (2018): 1879-1896.

Wilbur, Sabrina L., and Francis E. Marchlinski. "Adenosine as an antiarrhythmic agent." The American journal of cardiology 79.12 (1997): 30-37