Question 5

Outline the carbohydrate and lipid energy stores of the body (15% marks). Outline the metabolic responses to starvation under the following headings: 72 hours (85% marks).

Nutrient stores and the response to starvation

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College Answer

The first part of this question required the details of carbohydrate and lipid stores with their anatomical locations, biochemical forms, average amount of energy stored. Under the metabolic responses to starvation, a detailed description was expected of major sources of energy production, associated biochemical processes and their transition from one process to another or one source to another over time, and the hormonal influences that govern this. A more detailed answer would also include organ specific energy utilisation under a starved state. Overall it was expected that a transition of glycogenolysis to gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis would be described. It would also be important to highlight how an initial protein conservation strategy transitions to eventual protein catabolism and how muscle glycogen, an important store of glucose is unavailable to maintain blood glucose concentrations in starvation

Discussion

References

Cahill GF; Parris, Edith E.; Cahill, George F. (1970). "Starvation in man". N Engl J Med 282 (12): 668–675.

Benedict, FG: A study of prolonged fasting. Washington DC Carnegie Institute, 1915 (Publication No. 203)