This chapter is relevant to Section G8(i) of the 2017 CICM Primary Syllabus, which asks the exam candidate to "understand the detailed pharmacology of inotropes and vasopressors". It is a summary of the pharmacological properties of vasopressin, with a focus on its use as a vasoactive infusion. It has come up in past papers, most notably in Question 20 from the first paper of 2017 and Question 22 from the first paper of 2013.
Now, when one normally calls something a "summary", one implies that the information is sensibly condensed into several small easily digestible snack-like pieces. Carrying on with the food metaphor, what follows is more like eating out of the garbage. Occasional interesting morsels are buried under layers of irrelevant or duplicated material. To save the readers from his worst excesses, the author has attempted to combine all the exam-essential elements into the grey box which follows.
Class Vasopressor Chemistry Pituitary hormone Routes of administration IV Absorption Basically zero oral availability due to destruction by intestinal peptidases, such as trypsin Solubility pKa = 10.26, good water solubility Distribution VOD = 0.14 to 0.2 L/kg; protein binding ~ 30% Target receptor Vasopressin binds to V1 receptors (vasoconstrictor effect) and V2 receptors (antidiuretic effect). Metabolism 35% is metabolised by endothelial peptidases in the liver Elimination 65% is excreted unchanged by the kidney; half-life 17-35 minutes Time course of action Rapid onset of effect Mechanism of action Vasopressor effects are exerted by V1 receptors, which are Gq-protein coupled receptors. Similarly to alpha-1 receptors, they increase intracellular calcium by means of increasing cAMP concentrations.
V2 receptors are Gs-coupled receptors and produce the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane of principle cells of the collecting tubule.
Unlike catecholamine receptors, vasopressin receptors do not lose their affinity for vasopressin with changing pH.
Clinical effects Vasoconstriction, redistribution of splanchnic blood flow, increased platelet aggregation, decreased urine output, increased circulating Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor Single best reference for further information TGA PI document
Chemical structure and chemical relatives of vasopressin are a fascinating topic, and
a characteristically unhinged discussion of the vasopressin receptor agonist class is carried on in the chapter on the pharmacology of vasopressin an its analogues, exiled into the lower hells of the endocrinology section because that is where the relevant CICM syllabus item was. On the other hand, it was felt that this vasopressor-focused entry was necessary and should belong in the cardiovascular section, as that is more logical for the intensivist who will be using this substance mainly to manipulate the cardiovascular system. That same intensivist will, more than likely, also have little interest in the details of disulfide bridges and cyclical peptide molecule structures. For that reason, here the reader will be spared those details, and instead redirected to works like Glavaš et al (2022).
Vasopressin really should be given via a central line. Like noradrenaline, is was once routinely administered via peripheral veins; and like noradrenaline gangrenous complications plagued its use.
Unlike noradrenaline, it did not seem to extravasate spontaneously, so its effect on the vasa venorum may not be as pronounced (given that the gangrenous complications were typically the effect of IVC dislodgement).
Half life = 17 – 35 minutes
65% of Vasopressin is excreted unchanged in the kidneys
35% of Vasopressin is metabolized by endothelial peptidases in the kidney and liver.
The key feature which renders vasopressin vulnerable to this form of elimination is the 8th amino acid, arginine. A substitution for dextro-arginine results in greatly increased half life (eg. desmopressin).
Vasopressin receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors and produce their effect very rapidly through IP3-mediated intracellular calcium release (in the vase of the Gq-coupled V1 receptors) and cAMP-mediated exocytosis of aquaporin-lined vesicles (in the case of the Gs-coupled V2 receptors). The "vasopressin and friends" chapter has a more content-rich explanation of their function, and what follows is a brief point-form reminder:
V1 vasopressin receptors are ubiquitous; the densest distribution is seen in the vascular smooth muscle. The distribution among vascular beds is also ubiquitous – with notable exceptions. For instance, vasopressin receptors are expressed in the efferent, but not the afferent arterioles of the kidney; the result is a tendency of vasopressin to increase the rate of glomerular filtration. This explains why shocked critically ill patients experience an increase (rather than a decrease) of urine output when the vasopressin infusion is commenced. Additionally, vasopressin receptors are found in the brain (where we don't really know what they do), and the platelets (where it increases intracellular calcium and creates conditions favourable for platelet activation).
At low doses, vasopressin acts as an antidiuretic hormone. The normal levels of vasopressin secretion in response to hyperosmolar states range up to a certain maximal effect.
Even though vasopressin concentration continues to rise, at a serum concentration of 5pM (picomoles) the maximal urinary concentration is achieved, and no greater water retention is possible. After this point, defence of osmolality must be accomplished by increasing water intake, rather than preventing water loss.
However, vasopressin levels will continue to increase in response to decreased blood pressure.
V1 receptor effects dominate this dose range. Via V1 receptors, vasopressin is a pure vasopressor, causing vasoconstriction without any chronotropic or inotropic effect. The levels increase in an exponential fashion; in animal models of haemorrhagic and septic shock the levels can increase 200-fold. The resulting systemic vasoconstriction preserves the perfusion of vital organs while sacrificing the more expendable tissues.
However, in sustained severe shock, this effect loses its oomph.
In both haemorrhagic and septic shock, the circulating levels of vasopressin seem to decrease, which probably contributes to the severity of shock. This is thought to be the consequence of pituitary vasopressin depletion. Obviously, this can be addressed with supplemental vasopressin. And yes, studies of septic pigs and haemorrhaging dogs have suggested that the vasopressin deficiency in shock states is readily answered by exogenous vasopressin infusion.
Vasopressin is not anything like the catecholamines. In contrast to them, vasopressin has variable effects depending on the expression of different receptors in different vascular beds. Not only that, but the effect can vary depending on dose.
And to top it off, in low (non-pressor) doses vasopressin has been show to actually act as a vasodilator in pulmonary arteries (of the rat), renal arteries (also of the rat), cerebral arteries (of the dog) and coronary arteries (of the monkeys), which seems to be related to L-arginine being synthesized into nitric oxide under the influence of V1 receptors.
Unlike noradrenaline, which causes a predictable vasopressor response in healthy people, vasopressin in the healthy human is a relatively weak pressor agent. The reason behind this is the increased sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex mediated by V1 receptors in the brain. The administration of vasopressin causes more bradycardia than an equivalently vasoactive dose of noradrenaline – the heart rate decrease is greater.
The above graph is an extrapolation of the famous article by Allwood et al (1963), which investigated the effects of catecholamines on healthy humans. Vasopressin was not tested - the graph is my own confabulation. However, it is supported by the cardiovascular data presented by the VASST investigators, who found that the most significant hemodynamic difference between their noradrenaline and vasopressin group was the slower heart rate among the vasopressin-treated patients.
In the denervated heart, vasopressin has a positive inotropic effect, presumably by affecting V1 receptors in the myocardium, making more calcium ions available to support contraction. The
Vasopressin causes vasoconstriction of vessels in the skeletal muscle, fat, the pancreas, and the thyroid gland. The vasoconstricting effect on the mesentery, coronary and cerebral circulation is not as pronounced with vasopressin as it is with the catecholamines. However, the higher the dose, the more coronary vasoconstriction there will be.
Unlike the linear, predictable dose-response curve of noradrenaline, vasopressin has a more traditional S-shaped dose-response curve, which demonstrates the diminishing effect it has at high doses. It has a considerably (order of magnitude) greater potency than noradrenaline, and escalating doses yield a disproportionately greater response at the middle dose range.
So, Pang and Tabrizchi specified that their dose range for noradrenaline was from 3.0 x 10-10 to 8.0 x 10-9 mol/kg/min, and the dose range for vasopressin was 4.5 x 10-11 to 1.4x10-9 mol/kg/min. One can recognise that the molar mass of vasopressin (C46H65N13O12S2) is 1056.22g. Thus, the tested dose range is 0.0475 to 1.48 mcg/kg/min. If we believe that 1mg of vasopressin equates to about 600 units, we can say that 1 unit weighs 1.667mcg. Thus, the dose range in the rat was from 0.03 to 0.89 units per kg per min.
That to me seems like a completely insane dose rate, unless my maths are horribly wrong. Compare with the recommended human dose: the infusion rate for vasopressin in the treatment of shock in adults is 0.6-2.4 units per hr, i.e. 0.01– 0.04 units/min, or 0.00014 to 0.0066 units/min/kg for a 70kg human.
However, we must recall that in healthy mammals with a preserved autonomic nervous system, vasopressin is a relatively weak vasoconstrictor. Perhaps the rats were less responsive for this reason. In contrast, septic humans seem to have a greatly increased sensitivity to vasopressin, and the doses they require are substantially lower.
It seems the consenting participation of healthy humans was more difficult to secure for vasopressin research than for noradrenaline; we must make do with data collected from patients in severe septic shock. True, this does not reflect the "real" physiological dose-response relationship - given their known hypersensitivity to vasopressin - but it is more applicable to bedside use in the ICU.
Don't pay attention to the extrapolated graph. The abovementioned study did not find a dose-response curve for vasopressin. The degree of improvement in MAP was not related to dose. They did, however, establish that at doses over 0.03 units per minute (1.8 units/hr) the cardiac index decreased significantly.
Furthermore, they mentioned that beyond 0.04 units/min there was no further improvement in hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that this is the point where the dose-response curve begins to plateau. This may have given rise to the manufacturer's dosing recommendation.
In addition to its own direct effects, vasopressin seems to enhance the catecholamine sensitivity of mammalian blood vessels (in one specific instance, the mesenteric artery of the rat).
This means that the commencement of a vasopressin infusion together with noradrenaline will lead to a greater improvement in blood pressure than would be expected from a simple additive effect.
As previously mentioned, vasopressin can act as a vasodilator in some select groups of vessels, and certainly some monkey coronaries had dilated for some investigators at some point. However in a series of anaesthetised dogs vasopressin consistently decreased coronary blood flow and increased coronary vascular resistance.
What are we to make of this? The pragmatic intensivist would have two questions. In the patient with untreated ischaemic heart disease, will vasopressin decrease myocardial perfusion? And, in a normal patient with normal coronary arteries, will vasopressin precipitate a myocardial infarction?
The answer seems to be dose-dependent. It is known that at low doses, vasopressin actually dilates coronary arteries (at the same time constricting peripheral non-essential vascular beds, thereby distributing blood flow to vital organs).
At moderate doses there is no significant effect on coronary vascular resistance. This is supported by human data: the VASST investigators reported on the cardiac safety of vasopressin in septic shock, and concluded that there was no significant increase in adverse cardiac effects at their studied dose range (0.01 - 0.03 units/min, or 0.6-1.8 units per hr).
However, at high doses myocardial perfusion seems to suffer, and with it the cardiac output. So one would be advised to avoid high-dose vasopressin in patients with untreated coronary artery stenosis, as it could be counterproductive. With a high enough dose, even healthy coronaries will vasoconstrict enough to produce ischaemia. This correlates with human studies which report an increase in the frequency of cardiac arrest among septic patients receiving more than 0.05 units/min (3 units/hr).
Again, there is a strange relationship of dose and response here. At levels resembling normal circulating levels, activation of V1 vasopressin receptors in the heart increases cardiac output. So, it acts as an inotrope, but the doses required for this effect are very small, and one may never see these effects in clinical practice.
As the dose is increased, coronary perfusion decreases because of coronary vasoconstriction. Combine this decrease in myocardial perfusion with the savage increase in afterload, and you can see why the cardiac output is observed to decrease with high dose vasopressin infusion.
Yes, perhaps in low (non-pressor) doses vasopressin has some vasodilatory effects on cerebral arteries. However, we also know that at higher doses, in the anaesthetised rat cerebral blood vessels are constricted by vasopressin. One might be forgiven for thinking that this has negative implications for the human brain, particularly in the setting of cerebral vasospasm (i.e. following a subarachnoid haemorrhage). Though some authors have reported its (relatively safe) use as a supplemental vasopressor in SAH, they caution their readers to carefully watch for vasospasm.
Vasopressin infusion decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in the rat. The authors hypothesise that this is a nitric oxide related effect. Among the work performed on humans, we may view studies in septic shock patients and those recovering from cardiopulmonary bypass. Each group has failed to demonstrate much of an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure at therapeutic doses. This is a contrast with catecholamines, which (owing to the alpha-1 receptors in the pulmonary circulation) can cause significant pulmonary vasoconstriction.
Investigators who marinaded some rat tail arteries in acidic brine had concluded that in conditions of metabolic acidosis, alpha-1 receptor responses are blunted. However, no such blunting occurred for vasopressin receptors; the arteries constricted as briskly as ever. This suggests that in severe metabolic acidosis vasopressin receptor sensitivity is well preserved.
This is perhaps the most popular application for vasopressin.
There was a period in the history of vasopressin use, during which it was thought to be somehow superior to noradrenaline as a single agent for severe septic shock. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that together, the vasopressors are more effective than when they are used alone, and that there is no real difference between them in terms of survival.
So, even though it is an apparently safe way to augment haemodynamic support for septic shock patients, the use of vasopressin does not seem to confer a survival benefit, which is sad news for the vasopressin enthusiast.
Given the relatively benign effect of moderate-dose vasopressin on cardiac output, pulmonary vessels and coronary vascular resistance, it is surprising how little literature there is on the subject of its use in cardiogenic shock. One retrospective analysis of 36 patients who developed cardiogenic shock after MI has confirmed that it increases MAP without any additional fatal cardiac embarrassment. Similarly, the Germans have published a small case series.
Vasopressin may also be an attractive alternative to traditional catecholamines in the treatment of certain catecholamine-intolerant cardiogenic shock states as HOCM and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (where you cannot afford to stimulate the beta-1 receptors).
The profoundly vasodilated state of the recently cardiotomised post-bypass patient calls for harsh vasopressors, and arginine vasopressin seems a logical choice. Indeed, this has been experimented with.
In a randomised controlled trial (where vasopressin was compared to placebo and standard care) a peri-operative infusion of 2 units/hr seemed to decrease post-CABG vasoplegia. A review article of vasopressor selection in vasoplegic shock has recommended the use of vasopressin for this purpose.
Additionally, vasopressin seems to have an advantage over noradrenaline when it comes to managing the hypotension which resulted from the use of milrinone. The authors of a 52-patient study of these drugs concluded that the beneficial effect of this vasopressin-on-milrinone interaction lies in the ability to increase systemic vascular resistance while decreasing right ventricular afterload.
There has been some interesting data arising from some dog models of irreversible haemorrhagic shock, resistant to volume replacement and catecholamines. In these dogs, MAP was effectively restored with vasopressin, when all else had failed. Paramilitary-sounding articles call attention to the fact that its use in the field may prevent progression to cardiac arrest in severe trauma. This contrasts with the empirical finding that vasopressin use is associated with increased 72-hour mortality in trauma patients (from 41% to 55%). A recent review article summarised the available animal studies and case series, and was unable to recommend anything except more studies. One such study is the VITRIS trial, carried out in the European prehospital setting. According to their website, it is still going.
As previously discussed, there is really only one study of vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in subarachnoid haemorrhage, and it was far from conclusive- though i this small series (22 patients) vasopressin had no adverse effects on cerebral perfusion, the authors were less than enthusiastic about its broad applicability, recommending that people make their own decisions.
Drugs which increase the effect of vasopressin
Drugs which inhibit the effect of vasopressin
There is no convenient antagonist to this drug. A vasodilator infusion of some variety may be useful.
Vasopressin receptor antagonists (such as the "vaptan" group of drugs) may play some role...
A good source for basic information about vasopressin is the canonical Goodman And Gillman text.
Turner, Robert A., John G. Pierce, and Vincent du Vigneaud. "The purification and the amino acid content of vasopressin preparations." Journal of Biological Chemistry 191.1 (1951): 21-28.
Oliver, George, and E. A. Schäfer. "On the Physiological Action of Extracts of Pituitary Body and certain other Glandular Organs Preliminary Communication."The Journal of physiology 18.3 (1895): 277-279.
Van Dyke, H. B., et al. "The isolation of a protein from the pars neuralis of the ox pituitary with constant oxytocic, pressor and diuresis-inhibiting activities." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 74.2 (1942): 190-209.
"Vasopressin Synthesised" Chem. Eng. News, 1956, 34 (23), p 2754
Nielsen, Aage Theil, and Christian Hamburger. "The Oxytocic and Pressor Activities of the USP Posterior Pituitary Reference Standard." Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 12.2 (1956): 200-210.
Dale, Henry Hallett, and Patrick Playfair Laidlaw. "A method of standardising pituitary (infundibular) extracts." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 4.1 (1912): 75-95.
Holton, Pamela. "A modification of the method of Dale and Laidlaw for standardization of posterior pituitary extract." British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy 3.4 (1948): 328-334.
Lemmens-Gruber R, Kamyar M. Vasopressin antagonists.Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Aug;63(15):1766-79.
Embrey, M. P., and J. Chassar Moir. "A comparison of the oxytocic effects of synthetic vasopressin and oxytocin." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 74.5 (1967): 648-652.
WEIS JR, F. ROBERT, et al. "Cardiovascular effects of oxytocin." Obstetrics & Gynecology 46.2 (1975): 211-214.
Thomas, J. S., S. H. Koh, and G. M. Cooper. "Haemodynamic effects of oxytocin given as iv bolus or infusion on women undergoing Caesarean section." British journal of anaesthesia 98.1 (2007): 116-119.
Gutkowska, J., et al. "Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone." Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 33.6 (2000): 625-633.
Mogan, G. R., G. P. Wormser, and E. B. Gottfried. "Infected gangrene. A serious complication of peripheral vasopressin administration." The American journal of gastroenterology 73.5 (1980): 426.
Montani, JEAN-PIERRE, et al. "Hemodynamic effects of exogenous and endogenous vasopressin at low plasma concentrations in conscious dogs."Circulation research 47.3 (1980): 346-355.
Studies of septic pigs and haemorrhaging dogs have suggested that there is some sort of vasopressin deficiency in shock states, which is readily answered by exogenous vasopressin.
Morales, David, et al. "Reversal by vasopressin of intractable hypotension in the late phase of hemorrhagic shock." Circulation 100.3 (1999): 226-229.
Landry, Donald W., et al. "Vasopressin pressor hypersensitivity in vasodilatory septic shock." Critical care medicine 25.8 (1997): 1279-1282.
Cowley Jr, Allen W., and Jean-François Liard. "Cardiovascular actions of vasopressin." Vasopressin. Springer US, 1987. 389-433.
Holmes, Cheryl L., Donald W. Landry, and John T. Granton. "Science review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 1–receptor physiology." Critical care 7.6 (2003): 427.
Holmes, Cheryl L., Donald W. Landry, and John T. Granton. "Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 2-clinical physiology." CRITICAL CARE-LONDON- 8.1 (2004): 15-24.
Arnauld, Elisabeth, et al. "The effects of hypotension and hypovolaemia on the liberation of vasopressin during haemorrhage in the unanaesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta)." Pflügers Archiv 371.3 (1977): 193-200.
Wilson, M. F., et al. "Vasopressin release during sepsis and septic shock in baboons and dogs." Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics 153.6 (1981): 869-872.
Landry, Donald W., et al. "Vasopressin deficiency contributes to the vasodilation of septic shock." Circulation 95.5 (1997): 1122-1125.
Sharshar, Tarek, et al. "Depletion of neurohypophyseal content of vasopressin in septic shock*." Critical care medicine 30.3 (2002): 497-500.
Walker, BENJIMEN R., MARC E. Childs, and E. MERRILL Adams. "Direct cardiac effects of vasopressin: role of V1-and V2-vasopressinergic receptors."American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 255.2 (1988): H261-H265.
COWLEY, ALLEN W., Emil Monos, and Arthur C. Guyton. "Interaction of vasopressin and the baroreceptor reflex system in the regulation of arterial blood pressure in the dog." Circulation research 34.4 (1974): 505-514.
Holmes, Cheryl L., et al. "Physiology of vasopressin relevant to management of septic shock." CHEST Journal 120.3 (2001): 989-1002.
Henderson, Kyle K., and Kenneth L. Byron. "Vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction: two concentration-dependent signaling pathways." Journal of Applied Physiology 102.4 (2007): 1402-1409.
Walker, BENJIMEN R., et al. "Vasopressin-induced pulmonary vasodilation in rats." American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 257.2 (1989): H415-H422.
Rudichenko, V. M., and W. H. Beierwaltes. "Arginine Vasopressin-lnduced Renal Vasodilation Mediated by Nitric Oxide." Journal of vascular research 32.2 (1995): 100-105.
Suzuki, Yoshio, et al. "Regional differences in the vasodilator response to vasopressin in canine cerebral arteries in vivo." Stroke 24.7 (1993): 1049-1053.
Okamura, Tomio, et al. "Mechanisms underlying arginine vasopressin-induced relaxation in monkey isolated coronary arteries." Journal of hypertension 17.5 (1999): 673-678.
Pang, C. C. Y., and R. Tabrizchi. "The effects of noradrenaline, B‐HT 920, methoxamine, angiotensin II and vasopressin on mean circulatory filling pressure in conscious rats." British journal of pharmacology 89.2 (1986): 389-394.
Allwood, M. J., A. F. Cobbold, and Jean Ginsburg. "Peripheral vascular effects of noradrenaline, isopropylnoradrenaline and dopamine." British medical bulletin 19.2 (1963): 132-136.
Holmes, Cheryl L., et al. "The effects of vasopressin on hemodynamics and renal function in severe septic shock: a case series." Intensive care medicine 27.8 (2001): 1416-1421.
Noguera, I., et al. "Potentiation by vasopressin of adrenergic vasoconstriction in the rat isolated mesenteric artery." British journal of pharmacology 122.3 (1997): 431-438.
Barrett, Lucinda K., Mervyn Singer, and Lucie H. Clapp. "Vasopressin: mechanisms of action on the vasculature in health and in septic shock." Critical care medicine35.1 (2007): 33-40.
Corliss, R. J., et al. "Systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of vasopressin."The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 256.1 (1968): 293-299.
Boyle, W. A., and LEIGH D. Segel. "Direct cardiac effects of vasopressin and their reversal by a vascular antagonist." American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 251.4 (1986): H734-H741.
Faraci, FRANK M. "Effects of endothelin and vasopressin on cerebral blood vessels." American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 257.3 (1989): H799-H803.
Muehlschlegel, Susanne, et al. "Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in refractory hypertensive, hypervolemic, hemodilutional therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage." Neurocritical care 6.1 (2007): 3-10.
Evora, P. R., P. J. Pearson, and H. V. Schaff. "Arginine vasopressin induces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of the pulmonary artery. V1-receptor-mediated production of nitric oxide." CHEST Journal 103.4 (1993): 1241-1245.
Tayama, Eiki, et al. "Arginine vasopressin is an ideal drug after cardiac surgery for the management of low systemic vascular resistant hypotension concomitant with pulmonary hypertension." Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 6.6 (2007): 715-719.
Fox, Anthony W., Robert E. May, and William E. Mitch. "Comparison of peptide and nonpeptide receptor-mediated responses in rat tail artery." Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 20.2 (1992): 282-289.
Walker, BENJIMEN R., MARC E. Childs, and E. MERRILL Adams. "Direct cardiac effects of vasopressin: role of V1-and V2-vasopressinergic receptors." American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 255.2 (1988): H261-H265.
Dünser, Martin W., et al. "Arginine Vasopressin in Advanced Vasodilatory Shock A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study." Circulation 107.18 (2003): 2313-2319.
Mehta, Sangeeta, et al. "Cardiac ischemia in patients with septic shock randomized to vasopressin or norepinephrine." Critical Care 17.3 (2013): R117.
Gordon, Anthony C., et al. "The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Vasopressin Compared With Norepinephrine in Septic ShockCardiopulmonary Effects of Vasopressin."CHEST Journal 142.3 (2012): 593-605.\
Klinzing, Stefan, et al. "High-dose vasopressin is not superior to norepinephrine in septic shock*." Critical care medicine 31.11 (2003): 2646-2650.
Torgersen, Christian, et al. "Comparing two different arginine vasopressin doses in advanced vasodilatory shock: a randomized, controlled, open-label trial." Intensive care medicine 36.1 (2010): 57-65.
Jolly, Sanjit, et al. "Effect of< i> Vasopressin</i> on Hemodynamics in Patients With Refractory Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction." The American journal of cardiology 96.12 (2005): 1617-1620.
Morales, David, et al. "Reversal by vasopressin of intractable hypotension in the late phase of hemorrhagic shock." Circulation 100.3 (1999): 226-229.
Voelckel, Wolfgang G., et al. "Vasopressin for hemorrhagic shock management: revisiting the potential value in civilian and combat casualty care." The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 69.1 (2010): S69-S74.
Collier, Bryan, et al. "Vasopressin use is associated with death in acute trauma patients with shock." Journal of Critical Care 25.1 (2010): 173-e9.
Beloncle, François, et al. "Does vasopressor therapy have an indication in hemorrhagic shock?." Annals of intensive care 3.1 (2013): 13.
Mayr VD, Luckner G, Jochberger S, Wenzel V, Hasibeder WR, Dünser MW. [Vasopressin as a rescue vasopressor agent. Treatment of selected cardiogenic shock states]. [Article in German] Anaesthesist. 2007 Oct;56(10):1017-20, 1022-3.
Gold, Jeffrey A., et al. "Vasopressin as an alternative to norepinephrine in the treatment of milrinone-induced hypotension." Critical care medicine 28.1 (2000): 249-252.
Jeon, Yunseok, et al. "Comparative hemodynamic effects of vasopressin and norepinephrine after milrinone-induced hypotension in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgical patients." European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery 29.6 (2006): 952-956.
Papadopoulos, Georgios, et al. "Perioperative infusion of low-dose of vasopressin for prevention and management of vasodilatory vasoplegic syndrome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-A double-blind randomized study." J Cardiothorac Surg 5 (2010): 17.
Egi, Moritoki, et al. "Selecting a vasopressor drug for vasoplegic shock after adult cardiac surgery: a systematic literature review." The Annals of thoracic surgery 83.2 (2007): 715-723.
Trippodo, N. C. "Total circulatory capacity in the rat. Effects of epinephrine and vasopressin on compliance and unstressed volume." Circulation research 49.4 (1981): 923-931.
Diana, John N., and Ronald R. Masden. "Effect of vasopressin infusion and sciatic nerve stimulation in isolated dog hindlimb." American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content 209.2 (1965): 390-396.