Viva 4

This station will explore the pharmacology of opioid drugs.
An elderly man has been admitted after an emergency laparotomy. He is on an infusion of morphine at 5 mg/hr. His serum creatinine has doubled overnight and he is oliguric. What are the pharmacological effects of morphine in this patient and how are they brought about? Similarly in this viva, candidates struggled with an applied knowledge of basic pharmacological principles relating to commonly used drugs. Mechanisms of action of opioids was also an area of weakness.