At present, this "basic life support" chapter is a discussion of compression-only CPR, reflecting the interest of the college examiners. Question 15 from the first paper of 2010 asked the candidates not to critically evaluate compression only CPR per se, but to critique the use of this technique as a replacement of the current guidelines. A brief lucid introduction to this topic is available from LITFL. In short, compression-only CPR seems sound theoretically (as it minimises interruption to compressions) and experimentally (many arrested animals can testify to its efficacy). However, human data for improved outcomes is lacking. The major benefit may be the increase in participation among squeamish rescuers.
The ARC have a brief FAQ on this issue, as well as a more comprehensive advisory statement.
Iwami, Taku, et al. "Effectiveness of bystander-initiated cardiac-only resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest." Circulation 116.25 (2007): 2900-2907.
SOS-Kanto Study Group. "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study." The Lancet 369.9565 (2007): 920-926.
Bohm, Katarina, et al. "Survival is similar after standard treatment and chest compression only in out-of-hospital bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation." Circulation 116.25 (2007): 2908-2912.
Svensson, Leif, et al. "Compression-only CPR or standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest." New England Journal of Medicine 363.5 (2010): 434-442.
Ogawa, Toshio, et al. "Outcomes of chest compression only CPR versus conventional CPR conducted by lay people in patients with out of hospital cardiopulmonary arrest witnessed by bystanders: nationwide population based observational study." BMJ 342 (2011).
Yao, Lan, et al. "Compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an updated meta-analysis of observational studies." The American journal of emergency medicine 32.6 (2014): 517-523.
Shimamoto, Tomonari, et al. "Dispatcher instruction of chest compression-only CPR increases actual provision of bystander CPR." Resuscitation 96 (2015): 9-15.
Iwami, Taku, et al. "Dissemination of Chest Compression-Only Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest." Circulation (2015): CIRCULATION AHA-.
Neumar, Robert W., et al. "Part 1: Executive Summary 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care." Circulation 132.18 suppl 2 (2015): S315-S367.
Maeda, Tetsuo, et al. "Impact of bystander-performed ventilation on functional outcomes after cardiac arrest and factors associated with ventilation-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a large observational study." Resuscitation 91 (2015): 122-130.
Kern, Karl B., et al. "Efficacy of chest compression-only BLS CPR in the presence of an occluded airway." Resuscitation 39.3 (1998): 179-188.