Essential reading for Cardiovascular Intensive Care

The "Cardiovascular Intensive Care" section is a series of annotations and footnotes to Section 2.1.4, by the same name, from the CICM Second Part General Exam Syllabus (First Edition).  This syllabus item combines material from vaguely cardiological topics, with some stuff mixed in which could more properly be described as vascular surgery, cardiac arrest resuscitation, or even recurrent branches of the First Part syllabus (such as haemodynamic monitoring). As the result of assimilating all this mass, "Cardiovascular Intensive care" ended up ballooning considerably, and now appears at the top of the list of CICM Part II topics (mostly because the number of "cardiovascular" SAQs is inflated by all the ECG questions, each of which is really just a third or a quarter of a "full" SAQ).

What follows is an index of helpful review articles that will have an impact in the early stages of preparing for the CICM Part II. The syllabus has an extensive list of what the candidate should be able to do ("for each of the above conditions expected knowledge will include" etc), and these resources should hopefully be able to answer some of these requirements.  Where the syllabus expects "relevant guidelines and evidence", the trials and guidelines are kept separate, to limit the size of this page but also because the ability to quote guidelines and debate trial evidence comes in at a different stage of exam preparation. Moreover it felt useful to separate trials and guidelines in cardiac arrest and resuscitation from the trials and guidelines in critical care cardiology because they cover somewhat different cognitive domains (and historically those were separate SAQ sections in the old classification used by Deranged Physiology, which pre-dated the Second Part Syllabus).

L1 conditions in "Cardiovascular Intensive Care"

The expectations from the syllabus document are:

...expected knowledge will include:

  • Epidemiology
  • Aetiology
  • Pathophysiology and clinical course
  • Assessment encompassing history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations
  • Management encompassing resuscitation, definitive treatment, initial and ongoing monitoring with supportive treatment
  • Complications and known sequelae
  • Relevant guidelines and evidence

Candidates should be able to:

  • Apply knowledge to intensive care clinical scenarios
  • Perform an appropriate clinical assessment
  • Analyse and synthesise information from a clinical assessment and investigations
  • Develop an evidence-based management plan tailored to patient needs"

Shock is listed as a syllabus item here, as well as in the Trauma Intensive Care section, as well as in Sepsis and Infections where it is more clearly distinct as "septic shock". This could mean that this "shock" section must be mostly about cardiogenic shock, but realistically one would probably benefit from a more generous interpretation, where "shock" is also treated as "all shock" or "undifferentiated shock".  Thus:

Shock in the broader sense

Shock which is undifferentiated

Reviews on all the different types of shock

Cardiac arrest

Ischaemic heart disease here is a separate syllabus item from acute coronary syndromes, which cleverly specifies that this section is intended for stable ischaemic heart disease, as everything else falls into the ACS definition. 

Acute coronary syndromes

Heart failure

Pulmonary hypertension: 

Hypertensive Crisis also appears in the renal section, where presumably it refers to specific renal-related causes of hypertensive emergencies (eg.  renal artery stenosis and scleroderma renal crisis) or to specific renal complications of hypertensive emergencies (i.e. renal failure due to the hypertension). Which leaves this section here to deal with all the other variants:

Valvular heart disease could be a huge topic (do you want granular detail for aetiology, epidemiology, / pathophysiology for each valve? Each leaflet?) Some kind of compromise needed be made. It ended up looking like this:

Aortic aneurysm and dissection are obviously somewhat different entities, so:

Cardiac arrythmias would be too big a topic if it were treated properly here, so it is only offered as a series of narrative reviews. Realistically the meat of the topic is in the causes and management guidelines. 

Thrombotic disease here is presumably something separate from the "arterio-venous thrombotic disease, e.g., DVT, thrombophilic disorders, HITTS, TTP-HUS" that occupies a prominent L1 position in the haematology and oncology section. Nor is this stroke (that's in neuro), nor is this PE ("clot, fat and other" went into the respiratory section). What thrombotic disease are we left with, that could be cardiovascular in theme, but unrelated to PE or DVT, and that is not an acute coronary syndrome (which has its own syllabus entry)? Reader, if an SAQ on this topic is ever encountered, we will complete this section, but for now it will be filled with a space-occupying rant.

L1 Topics in "Cardiovascular Intensive Care"

Haemodynamic monitoring is well integrated into the First Part annotated syllabus, so much so that it would be a huge pain to uproot and transplant it. Moreover it would serve neither the First Part candidates, who need to know it for the occasional written question, nor the Second Part candidates, who do not need that level of detail. Thus, "relevant anatomy, principles and practice, interpretation" is deprioritised here. "Relevant guidelines and evidence" and "controversies and risks" seem like more important topics for the almost-Fellow. Thus:

Interpretation of the electrocardiogram seems like something most candidates at this stage in their training will require no additional support for, other than the exposure to regular opportunities to practice their systematic approach. If they still don't have one of those, here's a couple of good examples.  The LITFL ECG resources, and specifically 150 of their "top 100 ECGs" are the best free pre-exam self-testing resource, and (historically) have also acted as the source of some the exam ECGs, back when they did not let you take the paper home. 

Mechanical supports: ECMO / IABP is a huge topic. 

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation  is again a massive topic, but fortunately overlaps with "cardiac arrest" which is already thoroughly flogged as an L1 condition, and moreover being the subject of numerous  past SAQs, assessment has driven learning to the point where everyone is generally capable of answering basic questions on this subject. Still:

L2 conditions in "Cardiovascular Intensive Care"

These are somewhat deprioritised, as the college does not expect aetiology/epidemiology or guidelines from the candidates:

"...expected knowledge will include:

  • Assessment encompassing history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations
  • Management encompassing resuscitation, definitive treatment, initial and ongoing monitoring with supportive treatment
  • Complications and known sequelae

Candidates should be able to:

  • Apply knowledge to intensive care clinical scenarios
  • Perform an appropriate clinical assessment
  • Analyse and synthesise information from a clinical assessment and investigations
  • Develop a management plan tailored to patient needs"

Congenital heart disease, presumably meaning "adult congenital heart disease in the ICU for reasons other than the repair of their congenital heart disease, otherwise this would be in the perioperative section":

Myocarditis: Lampejo et al (2021) or Basso (2022)

Pericarditis: Lazarou et al (2022)

Vena cava obstruction syndromes

L2 topics in "Cardiovascular Intensive Care"

Mechanical supports: VAD/Impella: 

Echocardiography in intensive care

  • ...

For each of these,  "expected knowledge will include" only  "principles and practice" and "controversies and risks", which means the echocardiography item is difficult to reconcile with other elements of the training program. Consider that CICM trainees are expected to do basically a semester of study on TTE before transitioning to independent practice. The implications of this knowledge are that either a) the college expects to test echo skills separately and this subject is not really a part of the Second Part Exam syllabus except on a very superficial level, or b) the expectations of the Second Part Exam overlap with the rest of the program, in which case the real syllabus for "Echocardiography in intensive care" is actually this appendix of the T-35 document, and when they say "principles and practice", they actually mean "functionally identify types of shock, monitor significant physiological abnormalities and guide individual therapy... identifying normal versus grossly abnormal anatomical structures and identifying significant functional abnormalities ... limited to the use of
2D and M-mode modalities with a clear understanding of the associated limitations of these techniques"
(Nanjayya et al, 2019).

To defend against the possibility of such expectations, the well-resourced exam candidate should aim to complete their echo competency before their Second Part Exam, as this will do no harm, and could potentially bring good. Those who haven't had the opportunity will benefit from reading the notes and watching the lectures from the RNSH FCUS course, which are of course not as good as attending the course.


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Gaieski, David F., and M. E. Mikkelsen. "Definition, classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of shock in adults." UpToDate, Waltham, MA. Accesed 8 (2016): 17.

Vincent, Jean-Louis, and Daniel De Backer. "Circulatory shock." New England Journal of Medicine 369.18 (2013): 1726-1734.

Gaieski, David F., et al. "Evaluation of and initial approach to the adult patient with undifferentiated hypotension and shock." Waltham, MA: UpToDate (2019).

Day, Russell G., and Sage P. Whitmore. "Undifferentiated Shock." Evidence-Based Critical Care: A Case Study Approach (2020): 21-32.

Cannon, Jeremy W. "Hemorrhagic shock." New England Journal of Medicine 378.4 (2018): 370-379.

Taghavi, Sharven, A. K. Nassar, and R. Askari. "Hypovolemic shock." (2018).

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Vishwanathan, Karthik, et al. "Evaluation and management of haemorrhagic shock in polytrauma: Clinical practice guidelines." Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma 13 (2021): 106-115.

Conti, Keith, et al. "Spinal Shock: Differentiation from Neurogenic Shock and Key Management Approaches." Clinical Management of Shock-The Science and Art of Physiological Restoration. IntechOpen, 2020.

Volski, Anna, and Daniel J. Ackerman. Neurogenic shock. IntechOpen, 2019.

Hussain, Ayyaz, Vsevolod V. Kuzkov, and Mikhail Y. Kirov. "Distributive shock." Advanced Hemodynamic Monitoring: Basics and New Horizons (2021): 245-255.

Zotzmann, Viviane, et al. "Obstructive shock, from diagnosis to treatment." Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine 23.7 (2022): 248.

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Sahota, Ruchi Jalota, and Edouard Sayad. "Tension pneumothorax." StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing, 2022.

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Adler, Yehuda, et al. "Cardiac tamponade." Nature Reviews Disease Primers 9.1 (2023): 36.

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Wong, Cheuk-Kit, and Harvey D. White. "Cardiogenic shock from left ventricular dysfunction complicating an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction." The American Heart Hospital Journal 7.1 (2009): 33-38.

Laghlam, Driss, et al. "Management of cardiogenic shock: a narrative review." Annals of Intensive Care 14.1 (2024): 45.

Copeland, Viana Jacquline, Alexander Fardman, and Ariel Furer. "Keep the Right in Mind—A Focused Approach to Right Ventricle-Predominant Cardiogenic Shock." Life 13.2 (2023): 379.

Akodad, Mariama, et al. "Management of valvulopathies with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock." Archives of cardiovascular diseases 112.12 (2019): 773-780.

Maury, Philippe, et al. "Management of sustained arrhythmias for patients with cardiogenic shock in intensive cardiac care units." Archives of cardiovascular diseases 112.12 (2019): 781-791.

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Myat, Aung, Kyoung-Jun Song, and Thomas Rea. "Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: current concepts." The Lancet 391.10124 (2018): 970-979.

Kiguchi, Tekeyuki, et al. "Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest across the World: First report from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR)." Resuscitation 152 (2020): 39-49.

Bray, Janet, et al. "The epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Australia and New Zealand: A binational report from the Australasian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC)." Resuscitation 172 (2022): 74-83.

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Albert, Malin, et al. "Aetiology and outcome in hospitalized cardiac arrest patients." European Heart Journal Open 3.4 (2023): oead066.

Allencherril, Joseph, et al. "Etiologies of In-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Resuscitation 175 (2022): 88-95.

Engdahl, J., et al. "The epidemiology of out-of-hospital ‘sudden’cardiac arrest." Resuscitation 52.3 (2002): 235-245.

Lazzarin, Taline, et al. "Post-cardiac arrest: mechanisms, management, and future perspectives." Journal of Clinical Medicine 12.1 (2022): 259.

Hania, Amad. "The Initial Assessment and Management of the Post-Cardiac Arrest Patient." Cardiac Arrhythmias-Translational Approach from Pathophysiology to Advanced Care. IntechOpen, 2022.

Sawyer, Kelly N., et al. "Sudden cardiac arrest survivorship: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association." Circulation 141.12 (2020): e654-e685.

Bergmark, Brian A., et al. "Acute coronary syndromes." The Lancet 399.10332 (2022): 1347-1358.

Bhatt, Deepak L., Renato D. Lopes, and Robert A. Harrington. "Diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes: a review." Jama 327.7 (2022): 662-675.

Ralapanawa, Udaya, and Ramiah Sivakanesan. "Epidemiology and the magnitude of coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome: a narrative review.Journal of epidemiology and global health 11.2 (2021): 169-177.

Timmis, Adam, et al. "Global epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes." Nature Reviews Cardiology 20.11 (2023): 778-788.

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Santos-Gallego, Carlos G., Belen Picatoste, and Juan José Badimón. "Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome." Current Atherosclerosis Reports 16 (2014): 1-9.

RG Day, SP Whitmore. "Undifferentiated Shock." Evidence, 2020.

JF Lanctôt, M Valois, Y Beaulieu. "EGLS: Echo-guided life support: An algorithmic approach to undifferentiated shock." Critical Ultrasound Journal, 2011, 2011.

DF Gaieski, ME Mikkelsen. "Definition, classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of shock in adults." UpToDate, Waltham, MA. Accesed, 2016, 2016.

Santos-Gallego, Carlos G., Belen Picatoste, and Juan José Badimón. "Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome." Current atherosclerosis reports 16 (2014): 1-9..

Ye, Fan, et al. "Assessing prognosis of acute coronary syndrome in recent clinical trials: a systematic review." Clinical medicine & research 17.1-2 (2019): 11-19. 

Gabara, Lavinia, et al. "Ischaemic heart disease: stable angina." Medicine 50.7 (2022): 412-419.

Morgan, Holly, et al. "Assessment and Management of Ischaemic Heart Disease in Non-Cardiac Surgery." Heart International 17.2 (2023): 19.

Flynn, Campbell D., et al. "Systematic review and meta-analysis of the mechanical complications of ischemic heart disease: papillary muscle rupture, left ventricle rupture and post-infarct ventricular septal defect." Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 11.3 (2022): 195.

Groenewegen, Amy, et al. "Epidemiology of heart failure." European journal of heart failure 22.8 (2020): 1342-1356.

Marik, Paul E., and Mark Flemmer. "Narrative review: the management of acute decompensated heart failure." Journal of intensive care medicine 27.6 (2012): 343-353.

Liew, Danny, et al. "Epidemiology of heart failure: Study of Heart failure in the Australian Primary carE setting (SHAPE)." ESC Heart Failure 7.6 (2020): 3871-3880.

Lip, G. Y. H., C. R. Gibbs, and D. G. Beevers. "Aetiology." Bmj 320.7227 (2000): 104-107.

Fritz, Josef, et al. "Aetiology, ejection fraction and mortality in chronic heart failure: a mediation analysis." Heart 110.4 (2024): 290-298.

Gardner, Roy S., and Colette E. Jackson. "The classical causes of heart failure." Oxford Textbook of Heart Failure (2011): 29.

Bertolone, Dario Tino, et al. "Contemporary management of stable coronary artery disease." High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention 29.3 (2022): 207-219.

Kones, Richard, and Umme Rumana. "Stable ischemic heart disease." Cardiology Clinics 32.3 (2014): 333-351.

Nowbar, Alexandra N., et al. "Mortality from ischemic heart disease: Analysis of data from the World Health Organization and coronary artery disease risk factors From NCD Risk Factor Collaboration." Circulation: cardiovascular quality and outcomes 12.6 (2019): e005375.

Fox, Keith AA, et al. "The myth of ‘stable’coronary artery disease." Nature Reviews Cardiology 17.1 (2020): 9-21.

Pilgrim, Thomas, et al. "Risk and timing of recurrent ischemic events among patients with stable ischemic heart disease, non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction." American heart journal 175 (2016): 56-65.

Castiglione, Vincenzo, et al. "Biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of heart failure." Heart failure reviews (2022): 1-19.

Harinstein, Matthew E., et al. "Clinical assessment of acute heart failure syndromes: emergency department through the early post-discharge period." Heart 97.19 (2011): 1607-1618.

Pastore, Maria Concetta, et al. "Basic and advanced echocardiography in advanced heart failure: an overview." Heart Failure Reviews 25 (2020): 937-948.

Rashid, Ahmed Mustafa, et al. "Management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction." Current Problems in Cardiology 48.5 (2023): 101596.

Jasinska-Piadlo, Alicja, and Patricia Campbell. "Management of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction." Heart 109.11 (2023): 874-883.

Sanfilippo, Filippo, et al. "The “CHEOPS” bundle for the management of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in critically ill patients: an experts’ opinion." Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine (2023): 101283.

Monteagudo-Vela, María, et al. "Right ventricular failure: current strategies and future development." Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 10 (2023): 998382.

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Tanai, Edit, and Stefan Frantz. "Pathophysiology of heart failure." Compr Physiol 6.1 (2015): 187-214.

Chávez-Iñiguez, Jonathan S., Sergio J. Sánchez-Villaseca, and Luz A. García-Macías. "Cardiorenal syndrome: Classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Literature review." Arch. Cardiol. Mex 92 (2022): 253-263.

Jones, Nicholas R., FD Richard Hobbs, and Clare J. Taylor. "Prognosis following a diagnosis of heart failure and the role of primary care: a review of the literature." BJGP open 1.3 (2017).

Poch, David, and Jess Mandel. "Pulmonary hypertension." Annals of internal medicine 174.4 (2021): ITC49-ITC64.

Elliott, William J. "Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies." Hypertension. Elsevier, 2024. 556-563.

Paini, Anna, et al. "Definitions and epidemiological aspects of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies." High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention 25 (2018): 241-244.

Jolly, Hannah, E. Marie Freel, and Chris Isles. "Management of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies: narrative review." Postgraduate medical journal 99.1169 (2023): 119-126.

Siddiqi, Tariq Jamal, et al. "Clinical Outcomes in Hypertensive Emergency: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis." Journal of the American Heart Association 12.14 (2023): e029355.

Stewart, Merrill H. "Hypertensive crisis: Diagnosis, presentation, and treatment." Current Opinion in Cardiology 38.4 (2023): 311-317. 

Rossi, Gian Paolo, et al. "Management of hypertensive emergencies: a practical approach." Blood Pressure 30.4 (2021): 208-219.

Gelzinis, Theresa A. "Pulmonary hypertension in 2021: part I—definition, classification, pathophysiology, and presentation." Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 36.6 (2022): 1552-1564.

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Coffey, Sean, et al. "Global epidemiology of valvular heart disease." Nature Reviews Cardiology 18.12 (2021): 853-864.

Praz, Fabien, et al. "Valvular heart disease: from mechanisms to management." The Lancet 403.10436 (2024): 1576-1589.

Maganti, Kameswari, et al. "Valvular heart disease: diagnosis and management." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 85. No. 5. Elsevier, 2010. 

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Inanc, Ibrahim Halil, et al. "Comparison of American and European guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease." Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine 47 (2023): 76-85.

Gill, Harminder, et al. "The advantages, pitfalls and limitations of guideline‐directed medical therapy in patients with valvular heart disease." European Journal of Heart Failure 23.8 (2021): 1325-1333.

Davidson & Davidson (2021)

Davidson, Laura J., and Charles J. Davidson. "Transcatheter treatment of valvular heart disease: a review." Jama 325.24 (2021): 2480-2494.

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Mathur, Atul, et al. "Aortic aneurysm." Journal of translational internal medicine 4.1 (2016): 35-41.

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De Paulis, Stefano, et al. "Postoperative intensive care management of aortic repair." Journal of Personalized Medicine 12.8 (2022): 1351.

Qrareya, Mohammad, and Bara Zuhaili. "Management of postoperative complications following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair." Surgical Clinics 101.5 (2021): 785-798.

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Flower, Luke, et al. "Management of acute aortic dissection in critical care." Journal of the Intensive Care Society 24.4 (2023): 409-418.

Erwin III, John P., et al. "2022 Aortic Disease Guideline-at-a-Glance." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 80.24 (2022): 2348-2352.

Bosch, Nicholas A., Jonathan Cimini, and Allan J. Walkey. "Atrial fibrillation in the ICU." Chest 154.6 (2018): 1424-1434.

Cosío, Francisco G. "Atrial flutter, typical and atypical: a review." Arrhythmia & electrophysiology review 6.2 (2017): 55.

Contadini, Daniele, and Alessio Menditto. "Supraventricular reentrant tachycardias." Clinical Cases in Cardiology: A Guide to Learning and Practice (2015): 213-226.

Katritsis, Demosthenes G., Wojciech Zareba, and A. John Camm. "Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 60.20 (2012): 1993-2004.

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Clark, Bradley A., and Eric N. Prystowsky. "Electrocardiography of atrioventricular block." Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics 13.4 (2021): 599-605.

Ufberg, Jacob W., and Jennifer S. Clark. "Bradydysrhythmias and atrioventricular conduction blocks." Emergency Medicine Clinics 24.1 (2006): 1-9.

Zarbiv, Sam, and Margaret Pisani. "When is a peripheral arterial catheter (A-line) indicated in my ICU patient?." CHEST (2018).

Reems, Miryam M., and Marcel Aumann. "Central venous pressure: principles, measurement, and interpretation." Compend Contin Educ Vet 34.1 (2012): E1.

Kornbau, Craig, et al. "Central line complications." International journal of critical illness and injury science 5.3 (2015): 170-178.

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Lan, Victor, and Amit Bardia. "Hemodynamic Monitoring." Anesthesia Equipment. WB Saunders, 2021. 271-286. 

Downs, Emily A., and James M. Isbell. "Impact of hemodynamic monitoring on clinical outcomes." Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 28.4 (2014): 463-476.

Pinsky, Michael R., et al. "Effective hemodynamic monitoring." Critical Care 26.1 (2022): 294.

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Parissis, Haralabos, et al. "IABP: history-evolution-pathophysiology-indications: what we need to know." Journal of cardiothoracic surgery 11 (2016): 1-13.

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Tsangaris, Adamantios, et al. "Overview of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support for the management of cardiogenic shock." Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 8 (2021): 686558.

Banfi, Carlo, et al. "Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: an overview of different cannulation techniques." Journal of thoracic disease 8.9 (2016): E875.

Rupprecht, L., et al. "Pitfalls in percutaneous ECMO cannulation." Heart, lung and vessels 7.4 (2015): 320.

Hermann, Marcus, and Harald Keller. "THE ECMO CIRCUIT AND TROUBLESHOOTING." Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: An Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning Approach (2022): 47.

Yin, Chengfen, and Lei Xu. "Hemodynamic Management During Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock: A Review." Intensive Care Research 3.2 (2023): 131-139.

Lüsebrink, Enzo, et al. "Update on weaning from veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation." Journal of clinical medicine 9.4 (2020): 992.

Fried, Justin A., et al. "How I approach weaning from venoarterial ECMO." Critical Care 24 (2020): 1-3.

İŞCAN, Şahin. "COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO ECMO USE." Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery I (2019).

Long, Brit, and Michael Gottlieb. "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the importance of the basics." Emergency Medicine Clinics 41.3 (2023): 509-528.

Buonpane, Angela, et al. "Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices: evidence synthesis with an umbrella review." Current Problems in Cardiology (2024): 102485.

Dennis, Mark, et al. "Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory cardiac arrest in Australia: a narrative review." Medical Journal of Australia 220.1 (2024): 46-53.

Kendsersky, Payton, and Richard A. Krasuski. "Intensive care unit management of the adult with congenital heart disease." Current Cardiology Reports 22.11 (2020): 136.

Babu-Narayan, Sonya V., et al. "Imaging of congenital heart disease in adults." European heart journal 37.15 (2016): 1182-1195.

Tompkins, Rose, and Anitra Romfh. "General principles of heart failure management in adult congenital heart disease." Heart failure reviews 25.4 (2020): 555-567.

Verheugt, Carianne L., et al. "Mortality in adult congenital heart disease." European heart journal 31.10 (2010): 1220-1229.

Niwa, Koichiro, Harald Kaemmerer, and Yskert von Kodolitsch. "Current diagnosis and management of late complications in adult congenital heart disease." Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 11.2 (2021): 478.

Buethe, Ji, Ravi C. Ashwath, and Prabhakar Rajiah. "Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases—imaging review and historical perspectives." Current problems in diagnostic radiology 44.4 (2015): 303-320.

Lampejo, Temi, et al. "Acute myocarditis: aetiology, diagnosis and management." Clinical Medicine 21.5 (2021): e505.

Basso, Cristina. "Myocarditis." New England Journal of Medicine 387.16 (2022): 1488-1500.

Lazarou, Emilia, et al. "Acute pericarditis: update." Current Cardiology Reports 24.8 (2022): 905-913.

Azizi, Abdul Hussain, et al. "Superior vena cava syndrome." Cardiovascular Interventions 13.24 (2020): 2896-2910.

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Nanjayya, Vinodh B., et al. "Levels of training in critical care echocardiography in adults. Recommendations from the College of Intensive Care Medicine Ultrasound Special Interest Group." Australasian Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 22.1 (2019): 73-79.

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