Essential reading for "Sepsis and Infections"

The "Sepsis and Infections" section is a series of annotations and footnotes to Section 2.1.3, by the same name, from the CICM Second Part General Exam Syllabus (First Edition).  They are all L1 conditions and topics, meaning "core areas of clinical practice relevant to intensive care medicine
... considered essential knowledge". 

What follows is an index of helpful review articles that will have an impact in the early stages of preparing for the CICM Part II. The syllabus has an extensive list of what the candidate should be able to do ("for each of the above conditions expected knowledge will include" etc), and these resources should hopefully be able to answer some of these requirements. This list and the local chapters should be a good starting point, but the trainee approaching the summit of their exam preparation should also become very familiar with the trials and guidelines for sepsis and infectious disease.

L1 conditions in "Sepsis and Infections"

Sepsis and Septic shock

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Rarer Infections with specific ICU considerations:

L1 topics  in "Sepsis and Infections"

Antimicrobial use in the ICU


Hotchkiss, Richard S., et al. "Sepsis and septic shock." Nature reviews Disease primers 2.1 (2016): 1-21.

Artero, Arturo, José Miguel Nogueira, and Rafael Zaragoza. Epidemiology of severe sepsis and septic shock. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012..

Jarczak, Dominik, Stefan Kluge, and Axel Nierhaus. "Sepsis—pathophysiology and therapeutic concepts." Frontiers in medicine 8 (2021): 628302.

Nofal, Mariam Akram, et al. "Recent trends in septic shock management: A narrative review of current evidence and recommendations." Annals of Medicine and Surgery: 10-1097.

Gavelli, Francesco, Luigi Mario Castello, and Gian Carlo Avanzi. "Management of sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department." Internal and emergency medicine 16.6 (2021): 1649-1661.

Ling, Lowell, et al. "Scoping review on diagnostic criteria and investigative approach in sepsis of unknown origin in critically ill patients." Journal of Intensive Care 10.1 (2022): 44.

Postelnicu, Radu, and Laura Evans. "Monitoring of the physical exam in sepsis." Current opinion in critical care 23.3 (2017): 232-236.0

Fulton, I. I., Muhammad Zubair, and Sharven Taghavi. "Laboratory Evaluation of Sepsis." (2023).

Widmann, Catherine N., and Michael T. Heneka. "Long-term cerebral consequences of sepsis." The Lancet Neurology 13.6 (2014): 630-636.

Gourd, Nicholas M., and Nikitas Nikitas. "Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.Journal of intensive care medicine 35.12 (2020): 1564-1575.

Marshall, John C., and Clifford S. Deutschman. "The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: syndrome, metaphor, and unsolved clinical challenge." Critical Care Medicine 49.9 (2021): 1402-1413.

Livingston, Mark. "The pathophysiology of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome." (2019).

Bingold, Tobias M., et al. "Individual organ failure and concomitant risk of mortality differs according to the type of admission to ICU–a retrospective study of SOFA score of 23,795 patients." PloS one 10.8 (2015): e0134329.

Sakr, Yasser, et al. "Patterns and early evolution of organ failure in the intensive care unit and their relation to outcome." Critical care 16 (2012): 1-9.

Lone, Nazir I., and Timothy S. Walsh. "Impact of intensive care unit organ failures on mortality during the five years after a critical illness." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 186.7 (2012): 640-647.

Marshall, J. C. "Measuring organ dysfunction.Medizinische Klinik-Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin 115.Suppl 1 (2020): 15-20.

Hua, Camille, et al. "Necrotising soft-tissue infections." The Lancet Infectious Diseases 23.3 (2023): e81-e94.

Schmitz, Marylin, et al. "Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in the intensive care unit." Annals of intensive care 8 (2018): 1-10.

Davis, Larry E. "Acute bacterial meningitis.CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology 24.5 (2018): 1264-1283.

Kohil, Amira, et al. "Viral meningitis: an overview." Archives of virology 166 (2021): 335-345.

Ellul, Mark, and Tom Solomon. "Acute encephalitis–diagnosis and management." Clinical medicine 18.2 (2018): 155.

Hubers, Scott A., et al. "Infective endocarditis: a contemporary review." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 95. No. 5. Elsevier, 2020.

Luzolo, Ange Landela, and Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi. "Cerebral malaria." Brain research bulletin 145 (2019): 53-58.

Abubakar, Ballah, et al. "ICU Management of Tetanus." ICU Management and Protocols. IntechOpen, 2022.

Sridharan, Sowmya, Isabella B. Princess, and Nagarajan Ramakrishnan. "Melioidosis in critical care: A review." Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine 25.Suppl 2 (2021): S161.

Singh, Rakshit K., et al. "Updates in the management of dengue shock syndrome: A comprehensive review." Cureus 15.10 (2023).

Elsheikha, Hany M., Christina M. Marra, and Xing-Quan Zhu. "Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral toxoplasmosis." Clinical microbiology reviews 34.1 (2020): 10-1128.

Li, Shu Shun, and Christopher H. Mody. "Cryptococcus." Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 7.3 (2010): 186-196.

Rao, Agam K. "Clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of botulism, 2021." MMWR. Recommendations and Reports 70 (2021).

Timsit, Jean-François, et al. "Rationalizing antimicrobial therapy in the ICU: a narrative review." Intensive care medicine 45 (2019): 172-189.