Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

This has come up in several past paper questions. For instance, Question 13 from the first paper of 2010 asks about antibiotic choices for MRSA.

Antibiotics for MRSA

You're not resistant to everything yet, you bastard.

A good article on the antibiotic management options for MRSA lists an entire arsenal of drugs which could be useful. Here they are, with links to articles about them.


Sader, Helio S., Thomas R. Fritsche, and Ronald N. Jones. "Potency and bactericidal activity of iclaprim against recent clinical gram-positive isolates."Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 53.5 (2009): 2171-2175.

Al-Nawas, Bilal, and Pramod M. Shah. "Intracellular activity of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 41.6 (1998): 655-658.

Grim, Shellee A., et al. "Trimethoprim‐Sulfamethoxazole as a Viable Treatment Option for Infections Caused by Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus."Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy 25.2 (2005): 253-264.

Parish, Daniel, and Noah Scheinfeld. "Ceftaroline fosamil, a cephalosporin derivative for the potential treatment of MRSA infection." Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000) 9.2 (2008): 201-209.

Murthy, Bindu, and Anne Schmitt-Hoffmann. "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ceftobiprole, an anti-MRSA cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity." Clinical pharmacokinetics 47.1 (2008): 21-33.

Leighton, Anton, et al. "Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and serum bactericidal activity of intravenous dalbavancin in healthy volunteers." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 48.3 (2004): 940-945.

McKay, Geoffrey A., et al. "Time–kill kinetics of oritavancin and comparator agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium." Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 63.6 (2009): 1191-1199.

Higgins, Deborah L., et al. "Telavancin, a multifunctional lipoglycopeptide, disrupts both cell wall synthesis and cell membrane integrity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 49.3 (2005): 1127-1134.

Wu, Wen-Shiann, et al. "Efficacy of combination oral antimicrobial agents against biofilm-embedded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 46.2 (2013): 89-95.

Nakazawa, Hiroaki, et al. "Enhancement of antimicrobial effects of various antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by combination with fosfomycin." Journal of infection and chemotherapy 9.4 (2003): 304-309.

French, G. L. "Bactericidal agents in the treatment of MRSA infections—the potential role of daptomycin." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 58.6 (2006): 1107-1117.

Livermore, David M. "Tigecycline: what is it, and where should it be used?."Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 56.4 (2005): 611-614.

Watkins, Richard R., Tracy L. Lemonovich, and Thomas M. File Jr. "An evidence-based review of linezolid for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): place in therapy." Core evidence 7 (2012): 131.

Drew, Richard H., et al. "Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections with quinupristin–dalfopristin in patients intolerant of or failing prior therapy." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 46.5 (2000): 775-784.